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The Where Mail 1040x

Where mail 1040x 12. Where mail 1040x   Business Deduction for Work-Related Education Table of Contents What's New Introduction Qualifying Work-Related EducationEducation Required by Employer or by Law Education To Maintain or Improve Skills Education To Meet Minimum Requirements Education That Qualifies You for a New Trade or Business What Expenses Can Be DeductedUnclaimed reimbursement. Where mail 1040x Transportation Expenses Travel Expenses No Double Benefit Allowed How To Treat ReimbursementsAccountable Plans Nonaccountable Plans Deducting Business ExpensesSelf-Employed Persons Employees Performing Artists and Fee-Basis Officials Impairment-Related Work Expenses Recordkeeping Illustrated Example What's New Standard mileage rate. Where mail 1040x  Generally, if you claim a business deduction for work-related education and you drive your car to and from school, the amount you can deduct for miles driven from January 1, 2013 through December 31, 2013, is 56. Where mail 1040x 5 cents per mile. Where mail 1040x For more information, see Transportation Expenses under What Expenses Can Be Deducted, later. Where mail 1040x Introduction This chapter discusses work-related education expenses that you may be able to deduct as business expenses. Where mail 1040x To claim such a deduction, you must: Itemize your deductions on Schedule A (Form 1040 or 1040NR) if you are an employee, File Schedule C (Form 1040), Profit or Loss From Business, Schedule C-EZ (Form 1040), Net Profit From Business, or Schedule F (Form 1040), Profit or Loss From Farming if you are self-employed, and Have expenses for education that meet the requirements discussed under Qualifying Work-Related Education , later. Where mail 1040x What is the tax benefit of taking a business deduction for work-related education. Where mail 1040x   If you are an employee and can itemize your deductions, you may be able to claim a deduction for the expenses you pay for your work-related education. Where mail 1040x Your deduction will be the amount by which your qualifying work-related education expenses plus other job and certain miscellaneous expenses (except for impairment-related work expenses of disabled individuals) is greater than 2% of your adjusted gross income. Where mail 1040x An itemized deduction reduces the amount of your income subject to tax. Where mail 1040x   If you are self-employed, you deduct your expenses for qualifying work-related education directly from your self-employment income. Where mail 1040x This reduces the amount of your income subject to both income tax and self-employment tax. Where mail 1040x   Your work-related education expenses may also qualify you for other tax benefits, such as the American opportunity and lifetime learning credits. Where mail 1040x You may qualify for these other benefits even if you do not meet the requirements listed above. Where mail 1040x   Also, your work-related education expenses may qualify you to claim more than one tax benefit. Where mail 1040x Generally, you may claim any number of benefits as long as you use different expenses to figure each one. Where mail 1040x Qualifying Work-Related Education You can deduct the costs of qualifying work-related education as business expenses. Where mail 1040x This is education that meets at least one of the following two tests. Where mail 1040x The education is required by your employer or the law to keep your present salary, status, or job. Where mail 1040x The required education must serve a bona fide business purpose of your employer. Where mail 1040x The education maintains or improves skills needed in your present work. Where mail 1040x However, even if the education meets one or both of the above tests, it is not qualifying work-related education if it: Is needed to meet the minimum educational requirements of your present trade or business, or Is part of a program of study that will qualify you for a new trade or business. Where mail 1040x You can deduct the costs of qualifying work-related education as a business expense even if the education could lead to a degree. Where mail 1040x Use Figure 12-1, Does Your Work-Related Education Qualify as a quick check to see if your education qualifies. Where mail 1040x Education Required by Employer or by Law Once you have met the minimum educational requirements for your job, your employer or the law may require you to get more education. Where mail 1040x This additional education is qualifying work-related education if all three of the following requirements are met. Where mail 1040x It is required for you to keep your present salary, status, or job, The requirement serves a bona fide business purpose of your employer, and The education is not part of a program that will qualify you for a new trade or business. Where mail 1040x When you get more education than your employer or the law requires, the additional education can be qualifying work-related education only if it maintains or improves skills required in your present work. Where mail 1040x See Education To Maintain or Improve Skills , later. Where mail 1040x Example. Where mail 1040x You are a teacher who has satisfied the minimum requirements for teaching. Where mail 1040x Your employer requires you to take an additional college course each year to keep your teaching job. Where mail 1040x If the courses will not qualify you for a new trade or business, they are qualifying work-related education even if you eventually receive a master's degree and an increase in salary because of this extra education. Where mail 1040x This image is too large to be displayed in the current screen. Where mail 1040x Please click the link to view the image. Where mail 1040x Figure 12-1 Education To Maintain or Improve Skills If your education is not required by your employer or the law, it can be qualifying work-related education only if it maintains or improves skills needed in your present work. Where mail 1040x This could include refresher courses, courses on current developments, and academic or vocational courses. Where mail 1040x Example. Where mail 1040x You repair televisions, radios, and stereo systems for XYZ Store. Where mail 1040x To keep up with the latest changes, you take special courses in radio and stereo service. Where mail 1040x These courses maintain and improve skills required in your work. Where mail 1040x Maintaining skills vs. Where mail 1040x qualifying for new job. Where mail 1040x   Education to maintain or improve skills needed in your present work is not qualifying education if it will also qualify you for a new trade or business. Where mail 1040x Education during temporary absence. Where mail 1040x   If you stop working for a year or less in order to get education to maintain or improve skills needed in your present work and then return to the same general type of work, your absence is considered temporary. Where mail 1040x Education that you get during a temporary absence is qualifying work-related education if it maintains or improves skills needed in your present work. Where mail 1040x Example. Where mail 1040x You quit your biology research job to become a full-time biology graduate student for 1 year. Where mail 1040x If you return to work in biology research after completing the courses, the education is related to your present work even if you do not go back to work with the same employer. Where mail 1040x Education during indefinite absence. Where mail 1040x   If you stop work for more than a year, your absence from your job is considered indefinite. Where mail 1040x Education during an indefinite absence, even if it maintains or improves skills needed in the work from which you are absent, is considered to qualify you for a new trade or business. Where mail 1040x Therefore, it is not qualifying work-related education. Where mail 1040x Education To Meet Minimum Requirements Education you need to meet the minimum educational requirements for your present trade or business is not qualifying work-related education. Where mail 1040x The minimum educational requirements are determined by: Laws and regulations, Standards of your profession, trade, or business, and Your employer. Where mail 1040x Once you have met the minimum educational requirements that were in effect when you were hired, you do not have to meet any new minimum educational requirements. Where mail 1040x This means that if the minimum requirements change after you were hired, any education you need to meet the new requirements can be qualifying education. Where mail 1040x You have not necessarily met the minimum educational requirements of your trade or business simply because you are already doing the work. Where mail 1040x Example 1. Where mail 1040x You are a full-time engineering student. Where mail 1040x Although you have not received your degree or certification, you work part time as an engineer for a firm that will employ you as a full-time engineer after you finish college. Where mail 1040x Although your college engineering courses improve your skills in your present job, they are also needed to meet the minimum job requirements for a full-time engineer. Where mail 1040x The education is not qualifying work-related education. Where mail 1040x Example 2. Where mail 1040x You are an accountant and you have met the minimum educational requirements of your employer. Where mail 1040x Your employer later changes the minimum educational requirements and requires you to take college courses to keep your job. Where mail 1040x These additional courses can be qualifying work-related education because you have already satisfied the minimum requirements that were in effect when you were hired. Where mail 1040x Requirements for Teachers States or school districts usually set the minimum educational requirements for teachers. Where mail 1040x The requirement is the college degree or the minimum number of college hours usually required of a person hired for that position. Where mail 1040x If there are no requirements, you will have met the minimum educational requirements when you become a faculty member. Where mail 1040x The determination of whether you are a faculty member of an educational institution must be made on the basis of the particular practices of the institution. Where mail 1040x You generally will be considered a faculty member when one or more of the following occurs. Where mail 1040x You have tenure. Where mail 1040x Your years of service count toward obtaining tenure. Where mail 1040x You have a vote in faculty decisions. Where mail 1040x Your school makes contributions for you to a retirement plan other than social security or a similar program. Where mail 1040x Example 1. Where mail 1040x The law in your state requires beginning secondary school teachers to have a bachelor's degree, including 10 professional education courses. Where mail 1040x In addition, to keep the job a teacher must complete a fifth year of training within 10 years from the date of hire. Where mail 1040x If the employing school certifies to the state Department of Education that qualified teachers cannot be found, the school can hire persons with only 3 years of college. Where mail 1040x However, to keep their jobs, these teachers must get a bachelor's degree and the required professional education courses within 3 years. Where mail 1040x Under these facts, the bachelor's degree, whether or not it includes the 10 professional education courses, is considered the minimum educational requirement for qualification as a teacher in your state. Where mail 1040x If you have all the required education except the fifth year, you have met the minimum educational requirements. Where mail 1040x The fifth year of training is qualifying work-related education unless it is part of a program of study that will qualify you for a new trade or business. Where mail 1040x Example 2. Where mail 1040x Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except that you have a bachelor's degree and only six professional education courses. Where mail 1040x The additional four education courses can be qualifying work-related education. Where mail 1040x Although you do not have all the required courses, you have already met the minimum educational requirements. Where mail 1040x Example 3. Where mail 1040x Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except that you are hired with only 3 years of college. Where mail 1040x The courses you take that lead to a bachelor's degree (including those in education) are not qualifying work-related education. Where mail 1040x They are needed to meet the minimum educational requirements for employment as a teacher. Where mail 1040x Example 4. Where mail 1040x You have a bachelor's degree and you work as a temporary instructor at a university. Where mail 1040x At the same time, you take graduate courses toward an advanced degree. Where mail 1040x The rules of the university state that you can become a faculty member only if you get a graduate degree. Where mail 1040x Also, you can keep your job as an instructor only as long as you show satisfactory progress toward getting this degree. Where mail 1040x You have not met the minimum educational requirements to qualify you as a faculty member. Where mail 1040x The graduate courses are not qualifying work-related education. Where mail 1040x Certification in a new state. Where mail 1040x   Once you have met the minimum educational requirements for teachers for your state, you are considered to have met the minimum educational requirements in all states. Where mail 1040x This is true even if you must get additional education to be certified in another state. Where mail 1040x Any additional education you need is qualifying work-related education. Where mail 1040x You have already met the minimum requirements for teaching. Where mail 1040x Teaching in another state is not a new trade or business. Where mail 1040x Example. Where mail 1040x You hold a permanent teaching certificate in State A and are employed as a teacher in that state for several years. Where mail 1040x You move to State B and are promptly hired as a teacher. Where mail 1040x You are required, however, to complete certain prescribed courses to get a permanent teaching certificate in State B. Where mail 1040x These additional courses are qualifying work-related education because the teaching position in State B involves the same general kind of work for which you were qualified in State A. Where mail 1040x Education That Qualifies You for a New Trade or Business Education that is part of a program of study that will qualify you for a new trade or business is not qualifying work-related education. Where mail 1040x This is true even if you do not plan to enter that trade or business. Where mail 1040x If you are an employee, a change of duties that involves the same general kind of work is not a new trade or business. Where mail 1040x Example 1. Where mail 1040x You are an accountant. Where mail 1040x Your employer requires you to get a law degree at your own expense. Where mail 1040x You register at a law school for the regular curriculum that leads to a law degree. Where mail 1040x Even if you do not intend to become a lawyer, the education is not qualifying because the law degree will qualify you for a new trade or business. Where mail 1040x Example 2. Where mail 1040x You are a general practitioner of medicine. Where mail 1040x You take a 2-week course to review developments in several specialized fields of medicine. Where mail 1040x The course does not qualify you for a new profession. Where mail 1040x It is qualifying work- related education because it maintains or improves skills required in your present profession. Where mail 1040x Example 3. Where mail 1040x While working in the private practice of psychiatry, you enter a program to study and train at an accredited psychoanalytic institute. Where mail 1040x The program will lead to qualifying you to practice psychoanalysis. Where mail 1040x The psychoanalytic training does not qualify you for a new profession. Where mail 1040x It is qualifying work-related education because it maintains or improves skills required in your present profession. Where mail 1040x Bar or CPA Review Course Review courses to prepare for the bar examination or the certified public accountant (CPA) examination are not qualifying work-related education. Where mail 1040x They are part of a program of study that can qualify you for a new profession. Where mail 1040x Teaching and Related Duties All teaching and related duties are considered the same general kind of work. Where mail 1040x A change in duties in any of the following ways is not considered a change to a new business. Where mail 1040x Elementary school teacher to secondary school teacher. Where mail 1040x Teacher of one subject, such as biology, to teacher of another subject, such as art. Where mail 1040x Classroom teacher to guidance counselor. Where mail 1040x Classroom teacher to school administrator. Where mail 1040x What Expenses Can Be Deducted If your education meets the requirements described earlier under Qualifying Work-Related Education you can generally deduct your education expenses as business expenses. Where mail 1040x If you are not self-employed, you can deduct business expenses only if you itemize your deductions. Where mail 1040x You cannot deduct expenses related to tax-exempt and excluded income. Where mail 1040x Deductible expenses. Where mail 1040x   The following education expenses can be deducted. Where mail 1040x Tuition, books, supplies, lab fees, and similar items. Where mail 1040x Certain transportation and travel costs. Where mail 1040x Other education expenses, such as costs of research and typing when writing a paper as part of an educational program. Where mail 1040x Nondeductible expenses. Where mail 1040x   You cannot deduct personal or capital expenses. Where mail 1040x For example, you cannot deduct the dollar value of vacation time or annual leave you take to attend classes. Where mail 1040x This amount is a personal expense. Where mail 1040x Unclaimed reimbursement. Where mail 1040x   If you do not claim reimbursement that you are entitled to receive from your employer, you cannot deduct the expenses that apply to that unclaimed reimbursement. Where mail 1040x Example. Where mail 1040x Your employer agrees to pay your education expenses if you file a voucher showing your expenses. Where mail 1040x You do not file a voucher and you do not get reimbursed. Where mail 1040x Because you did not file a voucher, you cannot deduct the expenses on your tax return. Where mail 1040x Transportation Expenses If your education qualifies, you can deduct local transportation costs of going directly from work to school. Where mail 1040x If you are regularly employed and go to school on a temporary basis, you can also deduct the costs of returning from school to home. Where mail 1040x Temporary basis. Where mail 1040x   You go to school on a temporary basis if either of the following situations applies to you. Where mail 1040x Your attendance at school is realistically expected to last 1 year or less and does indeed last for 1 year or less. Where mail 1040x Initially, your attendance at school is realistically expected to last 1 year or less, but at a later date your attendance is reasonably expected to last more than 1 year. Where mail 1040x Your attendance is temporary up to the date you determine it will last more than 1 year. Where mail 1040x If you are in either situation (1) or (2) above, your attendance is not temporary if facts and circumstances indicate otherwise. Where mail 1040x Attendance not on a temporary basis. Where mail 1040x   You do not go to school on a temporary basis if either of the following situations apply to you. Where mail 1040x Your attendance at school is realistically expected to last more than 1 year. Where mail 1040x It does not matter how long you actually attend. Where mail 1040x Initially, your attendance at school is realistically expected to last 1 year or less, but at a later date your attendance is reasonably expected to last more than 1 year. Where mail 1040x Your attendance is not temporary after the date you determine it will last more than 1 year. Where mail 1040x Deductible Transportation Expenses If you are regularly employed and go directly from home to school on a temporary basis, you can deduct the round-trip costs of transportation between your home and school. Where mail 1040x This is true regardless of the location of the school, the distance traveled, or whether you attend school on nonwork days. Where mail 1040x Transportation expenses include the actual costs of bus, subway, cab, or other fares, as well as the costs of using your car. Where mail 1040x Transportation expenses do not include amounts spent for travel, meals, or lodging while you are away from home overnight. Where mail 1040x Example 1. Where mail 1040x You regularly work in a nearby town, and go directly from work to home. Where mail 1040x You also attend school every work night for 3 months to take a course that improves your job skills. Where mail 1040x Since you are attending school on a temporary basis, you can deduct your daily round-trip transportation expenses in going between home and school. Where mail 1040x This is true regardless of the distance traveled. Where mail 1040x Example 2. Where mail 1040x Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except that on certain nights you go directly from work to school and then home. Where mail 1040x You can deduct your transportation expenses from your regular work site to school and then home. Where mail 1040x Example 3. Where mail 1040x Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except that you attend the school for 9 months on Saturdays, nonwork days. Where mail 1040x Since you are attending school on a temporary basis, you can deduct your round-trip transportation expenses in going between home and school. Where mail 1040x Example 4. Where mail 1040x Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except that you attend classes twice a week for 15 months. Where mail 1040x Since your attendance in school is not considered temporary, you cannot deduct your transportation expenses in going between home and school. Where mail 1040x If you go directly from work to school, you can deduct the one-way transportation expenses of going from work to school. Where mail 1040x If you go from work to home to school and return home, your transportation expenses cannot be more than if you had gone directly from work to school. Where mail 1040x Using your car. Where mail 1040x    If you use your car (whether you own or lease it) for transportation to school, you can deduct your actual expenses or use the standard mileage rate to figure the amount you can deduct. Where mail 1040x The standard mileage rate for miles driven from January 1, 2013 through December 31, 2013, is 56. Where mail 1040x 5 cents per mile. Where mail 1040x Whichever method you use, you can also deduct parking fees and tolls. Where mail 1040x See Publication 463, chapter 4, for information on deducting your actual expenses of using a car. Where mail 1040x Travel Expenses You can deduct expenses for travel, meals (see 50% limit on meals , later), and lodging if you travel overnight mainly to obtain qualifying work-related education. Where mail 1040x Travel expenses for qualifying work-related education are treated the same as travel expenses for other employee business purposes. Where mail 1040x For more information, see chapter 1 of Publication 463. Where mail 1040x You cannot deduct expenses for personal activities such as sightseeing, visiting, or entertaining. Where mail 1040x Mainly personal travel. Where mail 1040x   If your travel away from home is mainly personal, you cannot deduct all of your expenses for travel, meals, and lodging. Where mail 1040x You can deduct only your expenses for lodging and 50% of your expenses for meals during the time you attend the qualified educational activities. Where mail 1040x   Whether a trip's purpose is mainly personal or educational depends upon the facts and circumstances. Where mail 1040x An important factor is the comparison of time spent on personal activities with time spent on educational activities. Where mail 1040x If you spend more time on personal activities, the trip is considered mainly educational only if you can show a substantial nonpersonal reason for traveling to a particular location. Where mail 1040x Example 1. Where mail 1040x John works in Newark, New Jersey. Where mail 1040x He traveled to Chicago to take a deductible 1-week course at the request of his employer. Where mail 1040x His main reason for going to Chicago was to take the course. Where mail 1040x While there, he took a sightseeing trip, entertained some friends, and took a side trip to Pleasantville for a day. Where mail 1040x Since the trip was mainly for business, John can deduct his round-trip airfare to Chicago. Where mail 1040x He cannot deduct his transportation expenses of going to Pleasantville. Where mail 1040x He can deduct only the meals (subject to the 50% limit) and lodging connected with his educational activities. Where mail 1040x Example 2. Where mail 1040x Sue works in Boston. Where mail 1040x She went to a university in Michigan to take a course for work. Where mail 1040x The course is qualifying work-related education. Where mail 1040x She took one course, which is one-fourth of a full course load of study. Where mail 1040x She spent the rest of the time on personal activities. Where mail 1040x Her reasons for taking the course in Michigan were all personal. Where mail 1040x Sue's trip is mainly personal because three-fourths of her time is considered personal time. Where mail 1040x She cannot deduct the cost of her round-trip train ticket to Michigan. Where mail 1040x She can deduct one-fourth of the meals (subject to the 50% limit) and lodging costs for the time she attended the university. Where mail 1040x Example 3. Where mail 1040x Dave works in Nashville and recently traveled to California to take a 2-week seminar. Where mail 1040x The seminar is qualifying work-related education. Where mail 1040x While there, he spent an extra 8 weeks on personal activities. Where mail 1040x The facts, including the extra 8-week stay, show that his main purpose was to take a vacation. Where mail 1040x Dave cannot deduct his round-trip airfare or his meals and lodging for the 8 weeks. Where mail 1040x He can deduct only his expenses for meals (subject to the 50% limit) and lodging for the 2 weeks he attended the seminar. Where mail 1040x Cruises and conventions. Where mail 1040x   Certain cruises and conventions offer seminars or courses as part of their itinerary. Where mail 1040x Even if the seminars or courses are work related, your deduction for travel may be limited. Where mail 1040x This applies to: Travel by ocean liner, cruise ship, or other form of luxury water transportation, and Conventions outside the North American area. Where mail 1040x   For a discussion of the limits on travel expense deductions that apply to cruises and conventions, see Luxury Water Travel and Conventions in chapter 1 of Publication 463. Where mail 1040x 50% limit on meals. Where mail 1040x   You can deduct only 50% of the cost of your meals while traveling away from home to obtain qualifying work-related education. Where mail 1040x If you were reimbursed for the meals, see How To Treat Reimbursements , later. Where mail 1040x   Employees must use Form 2106 or Form 2106-EZ to apply the 50% limit. Where mail 1040x Travel as Education You cannot deduct the cost of travel as a form of education even if it is directly related to your duties in your work or business. Where mail 1040x Example. Where mail 1040x You are a French language teacher. Where mail 1040x While on sabbatical leave granted for travel, you traveled through France to improve your knowledge of the French language. Where mail 1040x You chose your itinerary and most of your activities to improve your French language skills. Where mail 1040x You cannot deduct your travel expenses as education expenses. Where mail 1040x This is true even if you spent most of your time learning French by visiting French schools and families, attending movies or plays, and engaging in similar activities. Where mail 1040x No Double Benefit Allowed You cannot do either of the following. Where mail 1040x Deduct work-related education expenses as business expenses if you benefit from these expenses under any other provision of the law, for example, as a tuition and fees deduction. Where mail 1040x Deduct work-related education expenses paid with tax-free scholarship, grant, or employer-provided educational assistance. Where mail 1040x See Adjustments to Qualifying Work-Related Education Expenses, next. Where mail 1040x Adjustments to Qualifying Work-Related Education Expenses If you pay qualifying work-related education expenses with certain tax-free funds, you cannot claim a deduction for those amounts. Where mail 1040x You must reduce the qualifying expenses by the amount of such expenses allocable to the tax-free educational assistance. Where mail 1040x Tax-free educational assistance. Where mail 1040x   This includes: The tax-free part of scholarships and fellowships (see Tax-Free Scholarships and Fellowships in chapter 1, Scholarships, Fellowships, Grants, and Tuition Reductions), Pell grants (see Pell Grants and Other Title IV Need-Based Education Grants in chapter 1, Scholarships, Fellowships, Grants, and Tuition Reductions). Where mail 1040x Employer-provided educational assistance (see chapter 11, Employer-Provided Educational Assistance ), Veterans' educational assistance (see Veterans' Benefits in chapter 1, Scholarships, Fellowships, Grants, and Tuition Reductions), and Any other nontaxable (tax-free) payments (other than gifts or inheritances) received as educational assistance. Where mail 1040x Amounts that do not reduce qualifying work-related education expenses. Where mail 1040x   Do not reduce the qualifying work-related education expenses by amounts paid with funds the student receives as: Payment for services, such as wages, A loan, A gift, An inheritance, or A withdrawal from the student's personal savings. Where mail 1040x Also, do not reduce the qualifying work-related education expenses by any scholarship or fellowship reported as income on the student's return or any scholarship which, by its terms, cannot be applied to qualifying work-related education expenses. Where mail 1040x How To Treat Reimbursements How you treat reimbursements depends on the arrangement you have with your employer. Where mail 1040x There are two basic types of reimbursement arrangements—accountable plans and nonaccountable plans. Where mail 1040x You can tell the type of plan you are reimbursed under by the way the reimbursement is reported on your Form W-2. Where mail 1040x Note. Where mail 1040x The following rules about reimbursement arrangements also apply to expense allowances received from your employer. Where mail 1040x Accountable Plans To be an accountable plan, your employer's reimbursement arrangement must require you to meet all three of the following rules. Where mail 1040x Your expenses must have a business connection. Where mail 1040x This means your expenses must be deductible under the rules for qualifying work-related education explained earlier. Where mail 1040x You must adequately account to your employer for your expenses within a reasonable period of time. Where mail 1040x You must return any reimbursement or allowance in excess of the expenses accounted for within a reasonable period of time. Where mail 1040x If you are reimbursed under an accountable plan, your employer should not include any reimbursement in your income in box 1 of your Form W-2. Where mail 1040x If your employer included reimbursements in box 1 of your Form W-2 and you meet all three rules for accountable plans, ask your employer for a corrected Form W-2. Where mail 1040x Accountable plan rules not met. Where mail 1040x   Even though you are reimbursed under an accountable plan, some of your expenses may not meet all three rules for accountable plans. Where mail 1040x Those expenses that fail to meet the three rules are treated as having been reimbursed under a Nonaccountable Plan (discussed later). Where mail 1040x Expenses equal reimbursement. Where mail 1040x   Under an accountable plan, if your expenses equal your reimbursement, you do not complete Form 2106 or 2106-EZ. Where mail 1040x Because your expenses and reimbursements are equal, you do not have a deduction. Where mail 1040x Excess expenses. Where mail 1040x   If your expenses are more than your reimbursement, you can deduct your excess expenses. Where mail 1040x This is discussed later, under Deducting Business Expenses . Where mail 1040x Allocating your reimbursements for meals. Where mail 1040x   Because your excess meal expenses are subject to the 50% limit, you must figure them separately from your other expenses. Where mail 1040x If your employer paid you a single amount to cover both meals and other expenses, you must allocate the reimbursement so that you can figure your excess meal expenses separately. Where mail 1040x Make the allocation as follows. Where mail 1040x Divide your meal expenses by your total expenses. Where mail 1040x Multiply your total reimbursement by the result from (1). Where mail 1040x This is the allocated reimbursement for your meal expenses. Where mail 1040x Subtract the amount figured in (2) from your total reimbursement. Where mail 1040x The difference is the allocated reimbursement for your other expenses of qualifying work-related education. Where mail 1040x Example. Where mail 1040x Your employer paid you an expense allowance of $2,000 under an accountable plan. Where mail 1040x The allowance was to cover all of your expenses of traveling away from home to take a 2-week training course for work. Where mail 1040x There was no indication of how much of the reimbursement was for each type of expense. Where mail 1040x Your actual expenses equal $2,500 ($425 for meals + $700 lodging + $150 transportation expenses + $1,225 for books and tuition). Where mail 1040x Using the steps listed above, allocate the reimbursement between the $425 meal expenses and the $2,075 other expenses. Where mail 1040x   1. Where mail 1040x $425 meal expenses  $2,500 total expenses = . Where mail 1040x 17   2. Where mail 1040x $2,000 (reimbursement)×. Where mail 1040x 17     =$340 (allocated reimbursement for meal expenses)   3. Where mail 1040x $2,000 (reimbursement)−$340 (meals)     = $1,660 (allocated reimbursement for other qualifying work-related education expenses) Your excess meal expenses are $85 ($425 − $340) and your excess other expenses are $415 ($2,075 − $1,660). Where mail 1040x After you apply the 50% limit to your meals, you have a deduction for work-related education expenses of $458 (($85 × 50%) + $415). Where mail 1040x Nonaccountable Plans Your employer will combine the amount of any reimbursement or other expense allowance paid to you under a nonaccountable plan with your wages, salary, or other pay and report the total in box 1 of your Form W-2. Where mail 1040x You can deduct your expenses regardless of whether they are more than, less than, or equal to your reimbursement. Where mail 1040x This is discussed later under Deducting Business Expenses . Where mail 1040x An illustrated example of a nonaccountable plan, using Form 2106-EZ, is shown at the end of this chapter. Where mail 1040x Reimbursements for nondeductible expenses. Where mail 1040x   Reimbursements you received for nondeductible expenses are treated as paid under a nonaccountable plan. Where mail 1040x You must include them in your income. Where mail 1040x For example, you must include in your income reimbursements your employer gave you for expenses of education that: You need to meet the minimum educational requirements for your job, or Is part of a program of study that can qualify you for a new trade or business. Where mail 1040x   For more information on accountable and nonaccountable plans, see chapter 6 of Publication 463. Where mail 1040x Deducting Business Expenses Self-employed persons and employees report their business expenses differently. Where mail 1040x The following information explains what forms you must use to deduct the cost of your qualifying work-related education as a business expense. Where mail 1040x Self-Employed Persons If you are self-employed, you must report the cost of your qualifying work-related education on the appropriate form used to report your business income and expenses (generally Schedule C (Form 1040), Schedule C-EZ (Form 1040), or Schedule F (Form 1040)). Where mail 1040x If your education expenses include expenses for a car or truck, travel, or meals, report those expenses the same way you report other business expenses for those items. Where mail 1040x See the instructions for the form you file for information on how to complete it. Where mail 1040x Employees If you are an employee, you can deduct the cost of qualifying work-related education only if you: Did not receive (and were not entitled to receive) any reimbursement from your employer, Were reimbursed under a nonaccountable plan (amount is included in box 1 of Form W-2), or Received reimbursement under an accountable plan, but the amount received was less than your expenses for which you claimed reimbursement. Where mail 1040x If either (1) or (2) applies, you can deduct the total qualifying cost. Where mail 1040x If (3) applies, you can deduct only the qualifying costs that were more than your reimbursement. Where mail 1040x In order to deduct the cost of your qualifying work-related education as a business expense, include the amount with your deduction for any other employee business expenses on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 21, or Schedule A (Form 1040NR), line 7. Where mail 1040x (Special rules for expenses of certain performing artists and fee-basis officials and for impairment-related work expenses are explained later. Where mail 1040x ) This deduction (except for impairment-related work expenses of disabled individuals) is subject to the 2%-of-adjusted-gross-income limit that applies to most miscellaneous itemized deductions. Where mail 1040x Form 2106 or 2106-EZ. Where mail 1040x   To figure your deduction for employee business expenses, including qualifying work-related education, you generally must complete Form 2106 or 2106-EZ. Where mail 1040x Form not required. Where mail 1040x   Do not complete either Form 2106 or 2106-EZ if: All reimbursements, if any, are included in box 1 of your Form W-2, and You are not claiming travel, transportation, meal, or entertainment expenses. Where mail 1040x   If you meet both of these requirements, enter the expenses directly on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 21, or Schedule A (Form 1040NR), line 7. Where mail 1040x (Special rules for expenses of certain Performing Artists and Fee-Basis Officials and for Impairment-Related Work Expenses are explained later. Where mail 1040x ) Using Form 2106-EZ. Where mail 1040x   This form is shorter and easier to use than Form 2106. Where mail 1040x Generally, you can use this form if: All reimbursements, if any, are included in box 1 of your Form W-2, and You are using the standard mileage rate if you are claiming vehicle expenses. Where mail 1040x   If you do not meet both of these requirements, use Form 2106. Where mail 1040x Performing Artists and Fee-Basis Officials If you are a qualified performing artist, or a state (or local) government official who is paid in whole or in part on a fee basis, you can deduct the cost of your qualifying work-related education as an adjustment to gross income rather than as an itemized deduction. Where mail 1040x Include the cost of your qualifying work-related education with any other employee business expenses on Form 1040, line 24, or Form 1040NR, line 35. Where mail 1040x You do not have to itemize your deductions on Schedule A (Form 1040 or 1040NR), and, therefore, the deduction is not subject to the 2%-of-adjusted-gross-income limit. Where mail 1040x You must complete Form 2106 or 2106-EZ to figure your deduction even if you meet the requirements described earlier under Form not required . Where mail 1040x For more information on qualified performing artists, see chapter 6 of Publication 463. Where mail 1040x Impairment-Related Work Expenses If you are disabled and have impairment-related work expenses that are necessary for you to be able to get qualifying work-related education, you can deduct these expenses on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 28, or Schedule A (Form 1040NR), line 14. Where mail 1040x They are not subject to the 2%-of-adjusted-gross-income limit. Where mail 1040x To deduct these expenses, you must complete Form 2106 or 2106-EZ even if you meet the requirements described earlier under Form not required . Where mail 1040x For more information on impairment-related work expenses, see chapter 6 of Publication 463. Where mail 1040x Recordkeeping You must keep records as proof of any deduction claimed on your tax return. Where mail 1040x Generally, you should keep your records for 3 years from the date of filing the tax return and claiming the deduction. Where mail 1040x If you are an employee who is reimbursed for expenses and you give your records and documentation to your employer, you do not have to keep duplicate copies of this information. Where mail 1040x However, you should keep your records for a 3-year period if: You claim deductions for expenses that are more than your reimbursement, Your employer does not use adequate accounting procedures to verify expense accounts, You are related to your employer, or Your expenses are reimbursed under a nonaccountable plan. Where mail 1040x Examples of records to keep. Where mail 1040x   If any of the above cases apply to you, you must be able to prove that your expenses are deductible. Where mail 1040x You should keep adequate records or have sufficient evidence that will support your expenses. Where mail 1040x Estimates or approximations do not qualify as proof of an expense. Where mail 1040x Some examples of what can be used to help prove your expenses are: Documents, such as transcripts, course descriptions, catalogs, etc. Where mail 1040x , showing periods of enrollment in educational institutions, principal subjects studied, and descriptions of educational activity. Where mail 1040x Canceled checks and receipts to verify amounts you spent for: Tuition and books, Meals and lodging while away from home overnight for educational purposes, Travel and transportation, and Other education expenses. Where mail 1040x Statements from your employer explaining whether the education was necessary for you to keep your job, salary, or status; how the education helped maintain or improve skills needed in your job; how much reimbursement you received; and, if you are a teacher, the type of certificate and subjects taught. Where mail 1040x Complete information about any scholarship or fellowship grants, including amounts you received during the year. Where mail 1040x Illustrated Example Victor Jones teaches math at a private high school in North Carolina. Where mail 1040x He was selected to attend a 3-week math seminar at a university in California. Where mail 1040x The seminar will improve his skills in his current job and is qualifying work-related education. Where mail 1040x He was reimbursed for his expenses under his employer's nonaccountable plan, so his reimbursement of $2,100 is included in the wages shown in box 1 of his Form W-2. Where mail 1040x Victor will file Form 1040. Where mail 1040x His actual expenses for the seminar are as follows:   Lodging   $1,050     Meals   526     Airfare   550     Taxi fares   50     Tuition and books   400     Total Expenses   $2,576   Victor files Form 2106-EZ with his tax return. Where mail 1040x He shows his expenses for the seminar in Part I of the form. Where mail 1040x He enters $1,650 ($1,050 + $550 + $50) on line 3 to account for his lodging, airfare, and taxi fares. Where mail 1040x He enters $400 on line 4 for his tuition and books. Where mail 1040x On the line provided for total meals and entertainment expenses, Victor enters $526 for meal expenses. Where mail 1040x He multiplies that amount by 50% and enters the result, $263, on line 5. Where mail 1040x On line 6, Victor totals the amounts from lines 3 through 5. Where mail 1040x He carries the total, $2,313, to Schedule A (Form 1040), line 21. Where mail 1040x Since he does not claim any vehicle expenses, Victor leaves Part II blank. Where mail 1040x His filled-in form is shown on the next page. Where mail 1040x This image is too large to be displayed in the current screen. Where mail 1040x Please click the link to view the image. Where mail 1040x Form 2106-EZ for V. Where mail 1040x Jones Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications