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Commissioner's Comments, Statements and Remarks

Written Testimony of IRS Commissioner John A. Koskinen before the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee on IRS Operations
March 26, 2014 — Commissioner Koskinen's written testimony before the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee on IRS operations.

Remarks of Acting Commissioner Werfel to the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants in Washington, DC
Nov. 5, 2013 — Prepared remarks of Acting Commissioner Danny Werfel to the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants in Washington, DC.

Oral Statement of Danny Werfel, Principal Deputy Commissioner, on the Affordable Care Act Before the House Ways and Means Committee
Aug. 1, 2013 — Principal Deputy Commissioner Danny Werfel gives an opening statement on the Affordable Care Act to the House Ways and Means Committee.

Prepared Remarks of Danny Werfel, Principal Deputy Commissioner, Before the 2013 IRS Nationwide Tax Forum
July 30, 2013 — IRS Principal Deputy Commissioner Danny Werfel speaks at a 2013 Nationwide Tax Forum taking place in Dallas, Tex.

Page Last Reviewed or Updated: 27-Mar-2014

The Taxes Online 1040ez

Taxes online 1040ez 2. Taxes online 1040ez   Possession Source Income Table of Contents Types of IncomeCompensation for Labor or Personal Services Investment Income Sales or Other Dispositions of Property Scholarships, Fellowships, Grants, Prizes, and Awards Effectively Connected Income In order to determine where to file your return and which form(s) you need to complete, you must determine the source of each item of income you received during the tax year. Taxes online 1040ez Income you received from sources within, or that was effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within, the relevant possession must be identified separately from U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez or foreign source income. Taxes online 1040ez This chapter discusses the rules for determining if the source of your income is from: American Samoa, The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico), Guam, or The U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez Virgin Islands (USVI). Taxes online 1040ez Generally, the same rules that apply for determining U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez source income also apply for determining possession source income. Taxes online 1040ez However, there are some important exceptions to these rules. Taxes online 1040ez Both the general rules and the exceptions are discussed in this chapter. Taxes online 1040ez U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez income rule. Taxes online 1040ez   This rule states that income is not possession source income if, under the rules of Internal Revenue Code sections 861–865, it is treated as income: From sources within the United States, or Effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States. Taxes online 1040ez Table 2-1 shows the general rules for determining whether income is from sources within the United States. Taxes online 1040ez Table 2-1. Taxes online 1040ez General Rules for Determining U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez Source of Income Item of Income Factor Determining Source Salaries, wages, and other compensation for labor or personal services Where labor or services performed Pensions Contributions: Where services were performed that earned the pension Investment earnings: Where pension trust is located Interest Residence of payer Dividends Where corporation created or organized Rents Location of property Royalties:   Natural resources Location of property Patents, copyrights, etc. Taxes online 1040ez Where property is used Sale of business inventory—purchased Where sold Sale of business inventory—produced Allocation if produced and sold in different locations Sale of real property Location of property Sale of personal property Seller's tax home (but see Special Rules for Gains From Dispositions of Certain Property , later, for exceptions) Sale of natural resources Allocation based on fair market value of product at export terminal. Taxes online 1040ez For more information, see Regulations section 1. Taxes online 1040ez 863-1(b). Taxes online 1040ez Types of Income This section looks at the most common types of income received by individuals, and the rules for determining the source of the income. Taxes online 1040ez Generally, the same rules shown in Table 2-1 are used to determine if you have possession source income. Taxes online 1040ez Compensation for Labor or Personal Services Income from labor or personal services includes wages, salaries, commissions, fees, per diem allowances, employee allowances and bonuses, and fringe benefits. Taxes online 1040ez It also includes income earned by sole proprietors and general partners from providing personal services in the course of their trade or business. Taxes online 1040ez Services performed wholly within a relevant possession. Taxes online 1040ez   Generally, all pay you receive for services performed in a relevant possession is considered to be from sources within that possession. Taxes online 1040ez However, there is an exception for income earned as a member of the U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez Armed Forces or a civilian spouse. Taxes online 1040ez U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez Armed Forces. Taxes online 1040ez   If you are a bona fide resident of a relevant possession, your military service pay will be sourced in that possession even if you perform the services in the United States or another possession. Taxes online 1040ez However, if you are not a bona fide resident of a possession, your military service pay will be income from the  United States even if you perform services in a possession. Taxes online 1040ez Civilian spouse of active duty member of the U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez Armed Forces. Taxes online 1040ez   If you are a bona fide resident of a U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez possession and choose to keep that possession as your tax residence under MSRRA when relocating with your servicemember spouse under military orders, the source of income for your labor or personal services is considered to be that possession. Taxes online 1040ez Likewise, if your tax residence is in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia before relocating and you choose to keep it as your tax residence, the source of income for services performed in any of the U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez possessions is considered to be the United States and, specifically, your state of residence or the District of Columbia. Taxes online 1040ez Services performed partly inside and partly outside a relevant possession. Taxes online 1040ez   If you are an employee and receive compensation for labor or personal services performed both inside and outside the relevant possession, special rules apply in determining the source of the compensation. Taxes online 1040ez Compensation (other than certain fringe benefits) is sourced on a time basis. Taxes online 1040ez Certain fringe benefits (such as housing and education) are sourced on a geographical basis. Taxes online 1040ez   Or, you may be permitted to use an alternative basis to determine the source of compensation. Taxes online 1040ez See Alternative basis , later. Taxes online 1040ez   If you are self-employed, determine the source of your income for labor or personal services from self-employment on the basis that most correctly reflects the proper source of that income under the facts and circumstances of your particular case. Taxes online 1040ez In many cases, the facts and circumstances will call for an apportionment on a time basis as explained next. Taxes online 1040ez Time basis. Taxes online 1040ez   Use a time basis to figure your compensation for labor or personal services from the relevant possession (other than the fringe benefits discussed later). Taxes online 1040ez Do this by multiplying your total compensation (other than the fringe benefits discussed later) by the following fraction:   Number of days you performed  services in the relevant  possession during the year     Total number of days you  performed services during the year           You can use a unit of time less than a day in the above fraction, if appropriate. Taxes online 1040ez The time period for which the income is made does not have to be a year. Taxes online 1040ez Instead, you can use another distinct, separate, and continuous time period if you can establish to the satisfaction of the IRS that this other period is more appropriate. Taxes online 1040ez Example. Taxes online 1040ez In 2013, you worked in your employer's office in the United States for 60 days and in the Puerto Rico office for 180 days, earning a total of $80,000 for the year. Taxes online 1040ez Your Puerto Rico source income is $60,000, figured as follows. Taxes online 1040ez       180 days 240 days × $80,000 = $60,000                 Multi-year compensation. Taxes online 1040ez   The source of multi-year compensation is generally determined on a time basis over the period to which the compensation is attributable. Taxes online 1040ez Multi-year compensation is compensation that is included in your income in 1 tax year but is attributable to a period that includes 2 or more tax years. Taxes online 1040ez You determine the period to which the income is attributable based on the facts and circumstances of your case. Taxes online 1040ez For more information on multi-year compensation, see Treasury Decision (T. Taxes online 1040ez D. Taxes online 1040ez ) 9212 and Regulations section 1. Taxes online 1040ez 861-4, 2005-35 I. Taxes online 1040ez R. Taxes online 1040ez B. Taxes online 1040ez 429, available at www. Taxes online 1040ez irs. Taxes online 1040ez gov/irb/2005-35_IRB/ar14. Taxes online 1040ez html. Taxes online 1040ez Certain fringe benefits sourced on a geographical basis. Taxes online 1040ez   If you received any of the following fringe benefits as compensation for labor or services performed as an employee partly inside and partly outside a relevant possession, you must source that income on a geographical basis. Taxes online 1040ez Housing. Taxes online 1040ez Education. Taxes online 1040ez Local transportation. Taxes online 1040ez Tax reimbursement. Taxes online 1040ez Hazardous or hardship duty pay. Taxes online 1040ez Moving expense reimbursement. Taxes online 1040ez For information on determining the source of the fringe benefits listed above, see Regulations section 1. Taxes online 1040ez 861-4. Taxes online 1040ez Alternative basis. Taxes online 1040ez   You can determine the source of your compensation under an alternative basis if you establish to the satisfaction of the IRS that, under the facts and circumstances of your case, the alternative basis more properly determines the source of your income than the time or geographical basis. Taxes online 1040ez If you use an alternative basis, you must keep (and have available for inspection) records to document why the alternative basis more properly determines the source of your income. Taxes online 1040ez De minimis exception. Taxes online 1040ez   There is an exception to the rule for determining the source of income earned in a possession. Taxes online 1040ez Generally, you will not have income from a possession if during a tax year you: Are a U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez citizen or resident, Are not a bona fide resident of that possession, Are not employed by or under contract with an individual, partnership, or corporation that is engaged in a trade or business in that possession, Temporarily perform services in that possession for 90 days or less, and Earned $3,000 or less from such services. Taxes online 1040ez This exception began with income earned during your 2008 tax year. Taxes online 1040ez Pensions. Taxes online 1040ez   Generally, pension income has two components: contributions to the pension plan and the earnings accrued from investing those contributions. Taxes online 1040ez The contribution portion is sourced according to where services were performed that earned the pension. Taxes online 1040ez The investment earnings portion is sourced according to the location of the pension trust. Taxes online 1040ez Example. Taxes online 1040ez You are a U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez citizen who worked in Puerto Rico for a U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez company. Taxes online 1040ez All services were performed in Puerto Rico. Taxes online 1040ez Upon retirement you remained in Puerto Rico and began receiving your pension from the U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez pension trust of your employer. Taxes online 1040ez Distributions from the U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez pension trust must be allocated between (1) contributions, which are Puerto Rico source income, and (2) investment earnings, which are U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez source income. Taxes online 1040ez Investment Income This category includes such income as interest, dividends, rents, and royalties. Taxes online 1040ez Interest income. Taxes online 1040ez   The source of interest income is generally determined by the residence of the payer. Taxes online 1040ez Interest paid by corporations created or organized in a relevant possession (possession corporation) or by individuals who are bona fide residents of a relevant possession is considered income from sources within that possession. Taxes online 1040ez   However, there is an exception to this rule if you are a bona fide resident of a relevant possession, receive interest from a corporation created or organized in that possession, and are a shareholder of that corporation who owns, directly or indirectly, at least 10% of the total voting stock of the corporation. Taxes online 1040ez See Regulations section 1. Taxes online 1040ez 937-2(i) for more information. Taxes online 1040ez Dividends. Taxes online 1040ez   Generally, dividends paid by a corporation created or organized in a relevant possession will be considered income from sources within that possession. Taxes online 1040ez There are additional rules for bona fide residents of a relevant possession who receive dividend income from possession corporations, and who own, directly or indirectly, at least 10% of the voting stock of the corporation. Taxes online 1040ez For more information, see Regulations section 1. Taxes online 1040ez 937-2(g). Taxes online 1040ez Rental income. Taxes online 1040ez   Rents from property located in a relevant possession are treated as income from sources within that possession. Taxes online 1040ez Royalties. Taxes online 1040ez   Royalties from natural resources located in a relevant possession are considered income from sources within that possession. Taxes online 1040ez   Also considered possession source income are royalties received for the use of, or for the privilege of using, in a relevant possession, patents, copyrights, secret processes and formulas, goodwill, trademarks, trade brands, franchises, and other like property. Taxes online 1040ez Sales or Other Dispositions of Property The source rules for sales or other dispositions of property are varied. Taxes online 1040ez The most common situations are discussed below. Taxes online 1040ez Real property. Taxes online 1040ez   Real property includes land and buildings, and generally anything built on, growing on, or attached to land. Taxes online 1040ez The location of the property generally determines the source of income from the sale. Taxes online 1040ez For example, if you are a bona fide resident of Guam and sell your home that is located in Guam, the gain on the sale is sourced in Guam. Taxes online 1040ez If, however, the home you sold was located in the United States, the gain is U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez source income. Taxes online 1040ez Personal property. Taxes online 1040ez   The term “personal property” refers to property (such as machinery, equipment, or furniture) that is not real property. Taxes online 1040ez Generally, gain (or loss) from the sale or other disposition is sourced according to the seller's tax home. Taxes online 1040ez If personal property is sold by a bona fide resident of a relevant possession, the gain (or loss) from the sale is treated as sourced within that possession. Taxes online 1040ez   This rule does not apply to the sale of inventory, intangible property, depreciable personal property, or property sold through a foreign office or fixed place of business. Taxes online 1040ez The rules applying to sales of inventory are discussed below. Taxes online 1040ez For information on sales of the other types of property mentioned, see Internal Revenue Code section 865. Taxes online 1040ez Inventory. Taxes online 1040ez   Your inventory is personal property that is stock in trade or that is held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of your trade or business. Taxes online 1040ez The source of income from the sale of inventory depends on whether the inventory was purchased or produced. Taxes online 1040ez Purchased. Taxes online 1040ez   Income from the sale of inventory that you purchased is sourced where you sell the property. Taxes online 1040ez Generally, this is where title to the property passes to the buyer. Taxes online 1040ez Produced. Taxes online 1040ez   Income from the sale of inventory that you produced in a relevant possession and sold outside that possession (or vice versa) is sourced based on an allocation. Taxes online 1040ez For information on making the allocation, see Regulations section 1. Taxes online 1040ez 863-3(f). Taxes online 1040ez Special Rules for Gains From Dispositions of Certain Property There are special rules for gains from dispositions of certain investment property (for example, stocks, bonds, debt instruments, diamonds, and gold) owned by a U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez citizen or resident alien prior to becoming a bona fide resident of a possession. Taxes online 1040ez You are subject to these special rules if you meet both of the following conditions. Taxes online 1040ez For the tax year for which the source of the gain must be determined, you are a bona fide resident of the relevant possession. Taxes online 1040ez For any of the 10 years preceding that year, you were a citizen or resident alien of the United States (other than a bona fide resident of the relevant possession). Taxes online 1040ez If you meet these conditions, gains from the disposition of this property will not be treated as income from sources within the relevant possession for purposes of the Internal Revenue Code. Taxes online 1040ez Accordingly, bona fide residents of American Samoa and Puerto Rico, for example, may not exclude the gain on their U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez tax return. Taxes online 1040ez (See chapter 3 for additional filing information. Taxes online 1040ez ) With respect to the CNMI, Guam, and the USVI, the gain from the disposition of this property will not meet the requirements for certain tax rules that may allow bona fide residents of those possessions to reduce or obtain a rebate of taxes on income from sources within the relevant possessions. Taxes online 1040ez These rules apply to dispositions after April 11, 2005. Taxes online 1040ez For details, see Regulations section 1. Taxes online 1040ez 937-2(f)(1) and Examples 1 and 2 of section 1. Taxes online 1040ez 937-2(k). Taxes online 1040ez Example 1. Taxes online 1040ez In 2007, Cheryl Jones, a U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez citizen, lived in the United States and paid $1,000 for 100 shares of stock in the Rose Corporation, a U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez corporation listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Taxes online 1040ez On March 1, 2010, she moved to Puerto Rico and changed her tax home to Puerto Rico on the same date. Taxes online 1040ez Cheryl satisfied the presence test in 2010 and, under the year-of-move exception, she was considered a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico for the rest of 2010. Taxes online 1040ez On March 1, 2010, the closing value of Cheryl's stock in the Rose Corporation was $2,000. Taxes online 1040ez On January 5, 2013, while still a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico, Cheryl sold all her Rose Corporation stock for $7,000. Taxes online 1040ez Under the earlier rules, none of Cheryl's $6,000 gain will be treated as income from sources within Puerto Rico. Taxes online 1040ez The source rules discussed in the preceding paragraphs supplement, and may apply in conjunction with, an existing special rule. Taxes online 1040ez This existing special rule applies if you are a U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez citizen or resident alien who becomes a bona fide resident of American Samoa, the CNMI, or Guam, and who has gain from the disposition of certain U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez assets during the 10-year period beginning when you became a bona fide resident. Taxes online 1040ez The gain is U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez source income that generally is subject to U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez tax if the property is either (1) located in the United States; (2) stock issued by a U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez corporation or a debt obligation of a U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez person or of the United States, a state (or political subdivision), or the District of Columbia; or (3) property that has a basis in whole or in part by reference to property described in (1) or (2). Taxes online 1040ez See chapter 3 for filing information. Taxes online 1040ez Special election. Taxes online 1040ez   For dispositions after April 11, 2005, you can choose to treat the part of gain (or loss) attributable to the time you held the property while a bona fide resident of the relevant possession (the possession holding period) as gain (or loss) from sources within that possession. Taxes online 1040ez Make the election by reporting the gain attributable to the possession holding period on your income tax return for the year of disposition. Taxes online 1040ez This election overrides both of the special rules discussed earlier. Taxes online 1040ez   There are two methods for figuring the gain for the possession holding period, one for marketable securities and another for other types of investment property. Taxes online 1040ez Marketable securities. Taxes online 1040ez   Marketable securities are those actively traded on an established financial market, such as stock in a publicly held corporation. Taxes online 1040ez Under the special election, allocate the gain (or loss) by figuring the appreciation separately for your possession and U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez holding periods. Taxes online 1040ez   Your possession holding period begins on the first day you do not have a tax home outside the relevant possession. Taxes online 1040ez The gain (or loss) attributable to the possession holding period is the difference in fair market value of the security at the close of the market on the first and last days of this holding period. Taxes online 1040ez This is your gain (or loss) that is treated as being from sources within the relevant possession. Taxes online 1040ez If you were a bona fide resident of the relevant possession for more than one continuous period, combine the gains (or losses) from each possession holding period. Taxes online 1040ez Example 2. Taxes online 1040ez Assume the same facts as in Example 1, except that Cheryl makes the special election to allocate the gain between her U. Taxes online 1040ez S. Taxes online 1040ez and possession holding periods. Taxes online 1040ez Cheryl's possession holding period began March 1, 2010, the date her tax home changed to Puerto Rico. Taxes online 1040ez Therefore, the portion of gain attributable to her possession holding period is $5,000 ($7,000 sale price – $2,000 closing value on first day of the possession holding period). Taxes online 1040ez By reporting $5,000 of her $6,000 gain as Puerto Rico source income on her 2013 Puerto Rico tax return (and the remainder as non-Puerto Rico source income), Cheryl elects to treat that amount as Puerto Rico source income. Taxes online 1040ez Other personal property. Taxes online 1040ez   For personal property other than marketable securities, use a time-based allocation. Taxes online 1040ez Figure the gain (or loss) attributable to the possession holding period by multiplying your total gain (or loss) by the following fraction. Taxes online 1040ez      Number of days in the  possession holding period     Total number of days  in your holding period         The result is your gain (or loss) that is treated as being from sources within the relevant possession. Taxes online 1040ez Example 3. Taxes online 1040ez In addition to the stock in Rose Corporation, Cheryl acquired a 5% interest in the Alder Partnership on January 1, 2009. Taxes online 1040ez On March 1, 2010, when she established bona fide residency in Puerto Rico, her partnership interest was not considered a marketable security. Taxes online 1040ez On September 16, 2013, while still a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico, Cheryl sold her interest in Alder Partnership for a $100,000 gain. Taxes online 1040ez She had owned the interest for a total of 1,720 days. Taxes online 1040ez Cheryl's possession holding period (from March 1, 2010, through September 16, 2013) is 1,296 days. Taxes online 1040ez The portion of her gain attributable to Puerto Rico is $75,349 ($100,000 x (1,296 Puerto Rico days ÷ 1,720 total days)). Taxes online 1040ez By reporting $75,349 of her $100,000 gain as Puerto Rico source income on her 2013 Puerto Rico tax return (and the remainder as non-Puerto Rico source income), Cheryl elects to treat that amount as Puerto Rico source income. Taxes online 1040ez Scholarships, Fellowships, Grants, Prizes, and Awards The source of these types of income is generally the residence of the payer, regardless of who actually disburses the funds. Taxes online 1040ez Therefore, in order to be possession source income, the payer must be a resident of the relevant possession, such as an individual who is a bona fide resident or a corporation created or organized in that possession. Taxes online 1040ez These rules do not apply to amounts paid as salary or other compensation for services. Taxes online 1040ez See Compensation for Labor or Personal Services, earlier in this chapter, for the source rules that apply. Taxes online 1040ez Effectively Connected Income In limited circumstances, some kinds of income from sources outside the relevant possession must be treated as effectively connected with a trade or business in that possession. Taxes online 1040ez These circumstances are listed below. Taxes online 1040ez You have an office or other fixed place of business in the relevant possession to which the income can be attributed. Taxes online 1040ez That office or place of business is a material factor in producing the income. Taxes online 1040ez The income is produced in the ordinary course of the trade or business carried on through that office or other fixed place of business. Taxes online 1040ez An office or other fixed place of business is a material factor if it significantly contributes to, and is an essential economic element in, the earning of the income. Taxes online 1040ez The three kinds of income from sources outside the relevant possession to which these rules apply are the following. Taxes online 1040ez Rents and royalties for the use of, or for the privilege of using, intangible personal property located outside the relevant possession or from any interest in such property. Taxes online 1040ez Included are rents or royalties for the use of, or for the privilege of using, outside the relevant possession, patents, copyrights, secret processes and formulas, goodwill, trademarks, trade brands, franchises, and similar properties if the rents or royalties are from the active conduct of a trade or business in the relevant possession. Taxes online 1040ez Dividends or interest from the active conduct of a banking, financing, or similar business in the relevant possession. Taxes online 1040ez Income, gain, or loss from the sale or exchange outside the relevant possession, through the office or other fixed place of business in the relevant possession, of: Stock in trade, Property that would be included in inventory if on hand at the end of the tax year, or Property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. Taxes online 1040ez Item (3) will not apply if you sold the property for use, consumption, or disposition outside the relevant possession and an office or other fixed place of business in a foreign country was a material factor in the sale. Taxes online 1040ez Example. Taxes online 1040ez Marcy Jackson is a bona fide resident of American Samoa. Taxes online 1040ez Her business, which she conducts from an office in American Samoa, is developing and selling specialized computer software. Taxes online 1040ez A software purchaser will frequently pay Marcy an additional amount to install the software on the purchaser's operating system and to ensure that the software is functioning properly. Taxes online 1040ez Marcy installs the software at the purchaser's place of business, which may be in American Samoa, in the United States, or in another country. Taxes online 1040ez The income from selling the software is effectively connected with the conduct of Marcy's business in American Samoa, even though the product's destination may be outside the possession. Taxes online 1040ez However, the compensation she receives for installing the software (personal services) outside of American Samoa is not effectively connected with the conduct of her business in the possession—the income is sourced where she performs the services. Taxes online 1040ez Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications