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Tax Return For Students 2011

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Tax Return For Students 2011

Tax return for students 2011 34. Tax return for students 2011   Crédito Tributario por Hijos Table of Contents Introduction Useful Items - You may want to see: Hijo Calificado Cantidad de CréditoLímites del Crédito Cómo Reclamar el Crédito Crédito Tributario Adicional por Hijos Cómo Completar el Anexo 8812 (Formulario 1040A o Formulario 1040)Parte I Partes II a IV Introduction El crédito tributario por hijos es un crédito que puede reducir su impuesto hasta $1,000 por cada uno de sus hijos calificados. Tax return for students 2011 El crédito tributario adicional por hijos es un crédito que podría tomar en el caso de que no pueda reclamar la cantidad completa del crédito tributario por hijos. Tax return for students 2011 Este capítulo le explica lo siguiente: Quién es un hijo calificado. Tax return for students 2011 La cantidad del crédito. Tax return for students 2011 Cómo se puede reclamar el crédito. Tax return for students 2011 El crédito tributario por hijos y el crédito tributario adicional por hijos no deben confundirse con el crédito por gastos del cuidado de menores y dependientes, el cual se explica en el capítulo 32. Tax return for students 2011 Si no está sujeto al pago de impuestos. Tax return for students 2011   Algunos créditos, tales como el crédito tributario por hijos o el crédito por gastos del cuidado de menores y dependientes, se usan para reducir el impuesto. Tax return for students 2011 Si la cantidad del impuesto en la línea 46 del Formulario 1040 o en la línea 28 del Formulario 1040A es cero, no calcule el crédito tributario por hijos ya que no hay impuesto que se pueda reducir. Tax return for students 2011 Sin embargo, podría reunir los requisitos para el crédito tributario adicional por hijos en la línea 65 (Formulario 1040) o en la línea 39 (Formulario 1040A). Tax return for students 2011 Useful Items - You may want to see: Publicación 972 Child Tax Credit (Crédito tributario por hijos), en inglés Formulario (e Instrucciones) Anexo 8812   (Formulario 1040A o 1040) Child Tax Credit (Crédito tributario por hijos), en inglés W-4(SP) Certificado de Exención de Retenciones del Empleado W-4 Employee's Withholding Allowance Certificate (Certificado de exención de retenciones del empleado), en inglés Hijo Calificado Un hijo calificado, para propósitos del crédito tributario por hijos, es aquél que: Es su hijo o hija, hijastro o hijastra, hijo de crianza, hermano o hermana, hermanastro o hermanastra o descendiente de cualquiera de ellos (por ejemplo, su nieto, nieta, sobrina o sobrino), Tenía menos de 17 años de edad al finalizar el año 2013, No proveyó más de la mitad de su propia manutención durante el año 2013, Vivió con usted durante más de la mitad del año 2013 (vea Excepciones al tiempo vivido con usted , más adelante), Fue reclamado como dependiente en la declaración de usted, No presenta una declaración conjunta para el año (o la presenta solamente para reclamar un reembolso), y Era ciudadano, nacional o residente de los Estados Unidos. Tax return for students 2011 Si el hijo fue adoptado, vea Hijo adoptivo , más adelante. Tax return for students 2011 Para cada hijo calificado, tiene que marcar el recuadro que aparece en la línea 6c del Formulario 1040 o del Formulario 1040A. Tax return for students 2011 Ejemplo 1. Tax return for students 2011 Su hijo cumplió 17 años de edad el día 30 de diciembre del año 2013. Tax return for students 2011 Él es ciudadano de los Estados Unidos y usted lo declara como dependiente en la declaración de impuestos. Tax return for students 2011 Su hijo no es hijo calificado para el crédito tributario por hijos porque no tenía menos de 17 años de edad al finalizar el año 2013. Tax return for students 2011 Ejemplo 2. Tax return for students 2011 Su hija cumplió 8 años en el año 2013. Tax return for students 2011 Ella no es ciudadana de los Estados Unidos, tiene un ITIN y vivió en México durante todo el año 2013. Tax return for students 2011 Ella no es un hijo calificado para el crédito tributario por hijos debido a que no fue residente de los Estados Unidos en 2013. Tax return for students 2011 Contribuyentes que tienen determinados hijos dependientes con un número de identificación personal del contribuyente (ITIN, por sus siglas en inglés). Tax return for students 2011   Si está reclamando un crédito tributario por hijos o un crédito tributario adicional por hijos basándose en un hijo que identificó en su declaración de impuestos con un número de identificación personal del contribuyente (ITIN, por sus siglas en inglés), en lugar de un número de Seguro Social (SSN, por sus siglas en inglés), tiene que completar la Parte I del Anexo 8812 (Formulario 1040A o 1040). Tax return for students 2011   Aun si su hijo es dependiente suyo, sólo puede reclamar un crédito tributario por hijos o un crédito tributario adicional por hijos basándose en un dependiente que sea ciudadano, nacional o residente de los Estados Unidos. Tax return for students 2011 Para ser tratado como residente de los Estados Unidos, un hijo normalmente tiene que cumplir el requisito de presencia sustancial. Tax return for students 2011 Para más información sobre el requisito de presencia sustancial, vea la Publicación 519, U. Tax return for students 2011 S. Tax return for students 2011 Tax Guide for Aliens (Guía sobre los impuestos federales estadounidenses para extranjeros), en inglés. Tax return for students 2011 Hijo adoptivo. Tax return for students 2011   A un hijo adoptivo siempre se le trata como si fuera su hijo. Tax return for students 2011 Un hijo adoptivo incluye un niño colocado en su hogar por una agencia autorizada, con la intención de que sea legalmente adoptado. Tax return for students 2011   Si usted es ciudadano o nacional de los EE. Tax return for students 2011 UU. Tax return for students 2011 y su hijo adoptivo vivió con usted como integrante de su unidad familiar durante todo el año en 2013, dicho hijo cumple el requisito (7), anteriormente, para ser un hijo calificado para propósitos del crédito tributario por hijos. Tax return for students 2011 Excepciones al tiempo vivido con usted. Tax return for students 2011   Se considera que un hijo vivió con usted más de la mitad del año 2013 si nació o murió en el año 2013, y su hogar (el de usted) fue el hogar del hijo más de la mitad del tiempo en el cual estuvo vivo. Tax return for students 2011 Las ausencias temporales por usted o su hijo debidas a circunstancias especiales, tales como las ausencias por educación, vacaciones, negocios, atención médica, servicio militar o estancia en un centro de detención para delincuentes juveniles cuentan como tiempo que el hijo vivió con usted. Tax return for students 2011   También hay excepciones para hijos secuestrados e hijos de padres divorciados o separados. Tax return for students 2011 Para detalles, vea Requisito de Residencia , en el capítulo 3. Tax return for students 2011 Hijo calificado de más de una persona. Tax return for students 2011   Se aplica una regla especial si su hijo calificado es el hijo calificado de más de una persona. Tax return for students 2011 Para detalles, vea Requisito Especial para el Hijo Calificado de Más de una Persona , en el capítulo 3. Tax return for students 2011 Cantidad de Crédito La cantidad máxima de crédito que puede reclamar es $1,000 por cada hijo calificado. Tax return for students 2011 Límites del Crédito Usted tiene que reducir su crédito tributario por hijos si la condición (1) o la condición (2) le corresponde: La cantidad de la línea 46 (Formulario 1040) o de la línea 28 (Formulario 1040A) es menor que el crédito. Tax return for students 2011 Si esta cantidad es cero, no puede reclamar este crédito porque no hay impuesto que se pueda reducir. Tax return for students 2011 Sin embargo, es posible que pueda tomar el crédito tributario adicional por hijos. Tax return for students 2011 Vea Crédito Tributario Adicional por Hijos , más adelante. Tax return for students 2011 Su ingreso bruto ajustado (AGI, por sus siglas en inglés) modificado es mayor que la cantidad que se indica a continuación para su estado civil para efectos de la declaración. Tax return for students 2011 Casados que presentan una declaración conjunta: $110,000. Tax return for students 2011 Soltero, cabeza de familia o viudo que reúne los requisitos: $75,000. Tax return for students 2011 Casados que presentan la declaración por separado: $55,000. Tax return for students 2011 Ingresos brutos ajustados modificados. Tax return for students 2011   Para propósitos del crédito tributario por hijos, su ingreso bruto ajustado (AGI, por sus siglas en inglés) modificado es su ingreso bruto ajustado más las cantidades siguientes que puedan ser aplicables en su caso: Toda cantidad excluida del ingreso debido a la exclusión de ingresos de fuentes de  Puerto Rico. Tax return for students 2011 En la línea de puntos directamente al lado de la línea 38 del Formulario 1040, anote la cantidad excluida e indentifíquela como “ EPRI. Tax return for students 2011 ” Además, adjunte una copia de todo Formulario 499R-2/W-2PR a su declaración. Tax return for students 2011 Toda cantidad de las líneas 45 ó 50 del Formulario 2555, Foreign Earned Income (Ingreso devengado en el extranjero), en inglés. Tax return for students 2011 Toda cantidad de la línea 18 del Formulario 2555-EZ, Foreign Earned Income Exclusion (Exclusión de ingreso devengado en el extranjero), en inglés. Tax return for students 2011 Toda cantidad de la línea 15 del Formulario 4563, Exclusion of Income for Bona Fide Residents of American Samoa (Exclusión del ingreso para residentes bona fide de la Samoa Estadounidense), en inglés. Tax return for students 2011   Si no tiene ninguna de las cantidades mencionadas anteriormente, su ingreso bruto ajustado modificado es igual a su ingreso bruto ajustado. Tax return for students 2011 Ingreso bruto ajustado. Tax return for students 2011   El ingreso bruto ajustado (AGI, por sus siglas en inglés) es la cantidad de la línea 38 del Formulario 1040 o de la línea 22 del Formulario 1040A. Tax return for students 2011 Cómo Reclamar el Crédito Para reclamar el crédito tributario por hijos, tiene que presentar el Formulario 1040 o el Formulario 1040A. Tax return for students 2011 No puede reclamar el crédito tributario por hijos en el Formulario 1040EZ. Tax return for students 2011 Tiene que proveer el nombre y número de identificación (normalmente el número de Seguro Social) de cada hijo calificado en su declaración de impuestos. Tax return for students 2011 Si reclama el crédito tributario por hijos con un hijo identificado por un ITIN, usted también tiene que presentar el Anexo 8812. Tax return for students 2011 Para calcular el crédito, primero revise la Child Tax Credit Worksheet (Hoja de trabajo del crédito tributario por hijos), en las Instrucciones para el Formulario 1040 o el Formulario 1040A. Tax return for students 2011 Si se le indica que consulte la Publicación 972, Child Tax Credit (Crédito tributario por hijos), en inglés, no puede utilizar la Hoja de trabajo de las instrucciones en la declaración de impuestos; en su lugar, usted tiene que utilizar la Publicación 972, en inglés, para calcular el crédito. Tax return for students 2011 Si no se le indica que utilice la Publicación 972, puede usar la Hoja de trabajo del crédito tributario por hijos, que se encuentra en las Instrucciones para el Formulario 1040 o las Instrucciones para el Formulario 1040A o la Publicación 972, todas en inglés, para calcular el crédito. Tax return for students 2011 Crédito Tributario Adicional por Hijos Este crédito es para determinadas personas que reciban menos de la cantidad total del crédito tributario por hijos. Tax return for students 2011 El crédito tributario adicional por hijos puede darle un reembolso aunque no adeude ningún impuesto. Tax return for students 2011 Cómo se reclama el crédito tributario adicional por hijos. Tax return for students 2011   Para reclamar el crédito tributario adicional por hijos, siga los pasos que aparecen a continuación: Asegúrese de haber calculado la cantidad, si existe, de su crédito tributario por hijos. Tax return for students 2011 Vea anteriormente el tema titulado Cómo Reclamar el Crédito . Tax return for students 2011 Use las Partes II a la IV del Anexo 8812 para determinar si puede reclamar el crédito tributario adicional por hijos si usted contestó “Yes” (Sí) en la línea 9 ó 10 de la Child Tax Credit Worksheet (Hoja de trabajo del crédito tributario por hijos) en las Instrucciones para el Formulario 1040 o en las Instrucciones para el Formulario 1040A, o en la línea 13 de la Child Tax Credit Worksheet (Hoja de trabajo del crédito tributario por hijos) en la Publicación 972, todas en inglés. Tax return for students 2011 Si tiene un crédito tributario adicional por hijos en la línea 13 del Anexo 8812, anótelo en la línea 65 del Formulario 1040 o en la línea 39 del Formulario 1040A. Tax return for students 2011 Cómo Completar el Anexo 8812 (Formulario 1040A o Formulario 1040) El Anexo 8812 tiene cuatro partes, pero se puede considerar como que consta de dos secciones. Tax return for students 2011 La Parte I es independiente de las Partes II a la IV. Tax return for students 2011 Si todos sus hijos tienen números de Seguro Social o números de identificación del contribuyente para adopción del IRS(ATIN, por sus siglas en inglés),y usted no reclama el crédito tributario adicional por hijos, no necesita completar ni adjuntar el Anexo 8812 a su declaración de impuestos. Tax return for students 2011 Parte I Usted sólo necesitará completar la Parte I si está reclamando el crédito tributario por hijos para un hijo que aparece identificado con un número de identificación personal del contribuyente del IRS (ITIN, por sus siglas en inglés). Tax return for students 2011 Si todos los hijos por los cuales usted marcó la casilla en la columna 4 de la línea 6c de su Formulario 1040 o Formulario 1040A tienen números de Seguro Social (SSN, por sus siglas en inglés) o números de identificación del contribuyente para adopción del IRS (ATIN, por sus siglas en inglés), no tiene que completar la Parte I del Anexo 8812. Tax return for students 2011 Partes II a IV Las Partes II a la IV le ayudan a calcular el crédito adicional por hijos que le corresponde a usted. Tax return for students 2011 Por lo general, deberá completar las Partes II a la IV únicamente si se le indica luego de que completa la Hoja de trabajo del crédito tributario por hijos que aparece en las instrucciones de su declaración de impuestos o en la Publicación 972. Tax return for students 2011 Vea Cómo se reclama el crédito tributario adicional por hijos , anteriormente. Tax return for students 2011 Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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The Tax Return For Students 2011

Tax return for students 2011 6. Tax return for students 2011   Basis of Assets Table of Contents Introduction Topics - This chapter discusses: Useful Items - You may want to see: Cost BasisReal Property Allocating the Basis Uniform Capitalization Rules Adjusted BasisIncreases to Basis Decreases to Basis Basis Other Than CostTaxable Exchanges Involuntary Conversions Nontaxable Exchanges Property Received as a Gift Property Transferred From a Spouse Inherited Property Property Distributed From a Partnership or Corporation Introduction Your basis is the amount of your investment in property for tax purposes. Tax return for students 2011 Use basis to figure the gain or loss on the sale, exchange, or other disposition of property. Tax return for students 2011 Also use basis to figure depreciation, amortization, depletion, and casualty losses. Tax return for students 2011 If you use property for both business or investment purposes and for personal purposes, you must allocate the basis based on the use. Tax return for students 2011 Only the basis allocated to the business or investment use of the property can be depreciated. Tax return for students 2011 Your original basis in property is adjusted (increased or decreased) by certain events. Tax return for students 2011 For example, if you make improvements to the property, increase your basis. Tax return for students 2011 If you take deductions for depreciation, or casualty losses, or claim certain credits, reduce your basis. Tax return for students 2011 Keep accurate records of all items that affect the basis of your assets. Tax return for students 2011 For information on keeping records, see chapter 1. Tax return for students 2011 Topics - This chapter discusses: Cost basis Adjusted basis Basis other than cost Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 535 Business Expenses 544 Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets 551 Basis of Assets 946 How To Depreciate Property See chapter 16 for information about getting publications and forms. Tax return for students 2011 Cost Basis The basis of property you buy is usually its cost. Tax return for students 2011 Cost is the amount you pay in cash, debt obligations, other property, or services. Tax return for students 2011 Your cost includes amounts you pay for sales tax, freight, installation, and testing. Tax return for students 2011 The basis of real estate and business assets will include other items, discussed later. Tax return for students 2011 Basis generally does not include interest payments. Tax return for students 2011 However, see Carrying charges and Capitalized interest in chapter 4 of Publication 535. Tax return for students 2011 You also may have to capitalize (add to basis) certain other costs related to buying or producing property. Tax return for students 2011 Under the uniform capitalization rules, discussed later, you may have to capitalize direct costs and certain indirect costs of producing property. Tax return for students 2011 Loans with low or no interest. Tax return for students 2011   If you buy property on a time-payment plan that charges little or no interest, the basis of your property is your stated purchase price minus the amount considered to be unstated interest. Tax return for students 2011 You generally have unstated interest if your interest rate is less than the applicable federal rate. Tax return for students 2011 See the discussion of unstated interest in Publication 537, Installment Sales. Tax return for students 2011 Real Property Real property, also called real estate, is land and generally anything built on, growing on, or attached to land. Tax return for students 2011 If you buy real property, certain fees and other expenses you pay are part of your cost basis in the property. Tax return for students 2011 Some of these expenses are discussed next. Tax return for students 2011 Lump sum purchase. Tax return for students 2011   If you buy improvements, such as buildings, and the land on which they stand for a lump sum, allocate your cost basis between the land and improvements. Tax return for students 2011 Allocate the cost basis according to the respective fair market values (FMVs) of the land and improvements at the time of purchase. Tax return for students 2011 Figure the basis of each asset by multiplying the lump sum by a fraction. Tax return for students 2011 The numerator is the FMV of that asset and the denominator is the FMV of the whole property at the time of purchase. Tax return for students 2011 Fair market value (FMV). Tax return for students 2011   FMV is the price at which property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither having to buy or sell, and both having reasonable knowledge of all necessary facts. Tax return for students 2011 Sales of similar property on or about the same date may help in figuring the FMV of the property. Tax return for students 2011 If you are not certain of the FMV of the land and improvements, you can allocate the basis according to their assessed values for real estate tax purposes. Tax return for students 2011 Real estate taxes. Tax return for students 2011   If you pay the real estate taxes the seller owed on real property you bought, and the seller did not reimburse you, treat those taxes as part of your basis. Tax return for students 2011   If you reimburse the seller for taxes the seller paid for you, you generally can deduct that amount as a tax expense. Tax return for students 2011 Whether or not you reimburse the seller, do not include that amount in the basis of your property. Tax return for students 2011 Settlement costs. Tax return for students 2011   Your basis includes the settlement fees and closing costs for buying the property. Tax return for students 2011 See Publication 551 for a detailed list of items you can and cannot include in basis. Tax return for students 2011   Do not include fees and costs for getting a loan on the property. Tax return for students 2011 Also, do not include amounts placed in escrow for the future payment of items such as taxes and insurance. Tax return for students 2011 Points. Tax return for students 2011   If you pay points to get a loan (including a mortgage, second mortgage, or line-of-credit), do not add the points to the basis of the related property. Tax return for students 2011 You may be able to deduct the points currently or over the term of the loan. Tax return for students 2011 For more information about deducting points, see Points in chapter 4 of Publication 535. Tax return for students 2011 Assumption of a mortgage. Tax return for students 2011   If you buy property and assume (or buy the property subject to) an existing mortgage, your basis includes the amount you pay for the property plus the amount you owe on the mortgage. Tax return for students 2011 Example. Tax return for students 2011 If you buy a farm for $100,000 cash and assume a mortgage of $400,000, your basis is $500,000. Tax return for students 2011 Constructing assets. Tax return for students 2011   If you build property or have assets built for you, your expenses for this construction are part of your basis. Tax return for students 2011 Some of these expenses include the following costs: Land, Labor and materials, Architect's fees, Building permit charges, Payments to contractors, Payments for rental equipment, and Inspection fees. Tax return for students 2011   In addition, if you use your own employees, farm materials, and equipment to build an asset, do not deduct the following expenses. Tax return for students 2011 You must capitalize them (include them in the asset's basis). Tax return for students 2011 Employee wages paid for the construction work, reduced by any employment credits allowed. Tax return for students 2011 Depreciation on equipment you own while it is used in the construction. Tax return for students 2011 Operating and maintenance costs for equipment used in the construction. Tax return for students 2011 The cost of business supplies and materials used in the construction. Tax return for students 2011    Do not include the value of your own labor, or any other labor you did not pay for, in the basis of any property you construct. Tax return for students 2011 Allocating the Basis In some instances, the rules for determining basis apply to a group of assets acquired in the same transaction or to property that consists of separate items. Tax return for students 2011 To determine the basis of these assets or separate items, there must be an allocation of basis. Tax return for students 2011 Group of assets acquired. Tax return for students 2011   If you buy multiple assets for a lump sum, allocate the amount you pay among the assets. Tax return for students 2011 Use this allocation to figure your basis for depreciation and gain or loss on a later disposition of any of these assets. Tax return for students 2011 You and the seller may agree in the sales contract to a specific allocation of the purchase price among the assets. Tax return for students 2011 If this allocation is based on the value of each asset and you and the seller have adverse tax interests, the allocation generally will be accepted. Tax return for students 2011 Farming business acquired. Tax return for students 2011   If you buy a group of assets that makes up a farming business, there are special rules you must use to allocate the purchase price among the assets. Tax return for students 2011 Generally, reduce the purchase price by any cash received. Tax return for students 2011 Allocate the remaining purchase price to the other business assets received in proportion to (but not more than) their FMV and in a certain order. Tax return for students 2011 See Trade or Business Acquired under Allocating the Basis in Publication 551 for more information. Tax return for students 2011 Transplanted embryo. Tax return for students 2011   If you buy a cow that is pregnant with a transplanted embryo, allocate to the basis of the cow the part of the purchase price equal to the FMV of the cow without the implant. Tax return for students 2011 Allocate the rest of the purchase price to the basis of the calf. Tax return for students 2011 Neither the cost allocated to the cow nor the cost allocated to the calf is deductible as a current business expense. Tax return for students 2011 Uniform Capitalization Rules Under the uniform capitalization rules, you must include certain direct and indirect costs in the basis of property you produce or in your inventory costs, rather than claim them as a current deduction. Tax return for students 2011 You recover these costs through depreciation, amortization, or cost of goods sold when you use, sell, or otherwise dispose of the property. Tax return for students 2011 Generally, you are subject to the uniform capitalization rules if you do any of the following: Produce real or tangible personal property, or Acquire property for resale. Tax return for students 2011 However, this rule does not apply to personal property if your average annual gross receipts for the 3-tax-year period ending with the year preceding the current tax year are $10 million or less. Tax return for students 2011 You produce property if you construct, build, install, manufacture, develop, improve, or create the property. Tax return for students 2011 You are not subject to the uniform capitalization rules if the property is produced for personal use. Tax return for students 2011 In a farming business, you produce property if you raise or grow any agricultural or horticultural commodity, including plants and animals. Tax return for students 2011 Plants. Tax return for students 2011   A plant produced in a farming business includes the following items: A fruit, nut, or other crop-bearing tree; An ornamental tree; A vine; A bush; Sod; and The crop or yield of a plant that will have more than one crop or yield. Tax return for students 2011 Animals. Tax return for students 2011   An animal produced in a farming business includes any stock, poultry or other bird, and fish or other sea life. Tax return for students 2011 The direct and indirect costs of producing plants or animals include preparatory costs and preproductive period costs. Tax return for students 2011 Preparatory costs include the acquisition costs of the seed, seedling, plant, or animal. Tax return for students 2011 For plants, preproductive period costs include the costs of items such as irrigation, pruning, frost protection, spraying, and harvesting. Tax return for students 2011 For animals, preproductive period costs include the costs of items such as feed, maintaining pasture or pen areas, breeding, veterinary services, and bedding. Tax return for students 2011 Exceptions. Tax return for students 2011   In a farming business, the uniform capitalization rules do not apply to: Any animal, Any plant with a preproductive period of 2 years or less, or Any costs of replanting certain plants lost or damaged due to casualty. Tax return for students 2011   Exceptions (1) and (2) do not apply to a corporation, partnership, or tax shelter required to use an accrual method of accounting. Tax return for students 2011 See Accrual Method Required under Accounting Methods in chapter 2. Tax return for students 2011   In addition, you can elect not to use the uniform capitalization rules for plants with a preproductive period of more than 2 years. Tax return for students 2011 If you make this election, special rules apply. Tax return for students 2011 This election cannot be made by a corporation, partnership, or tax shelter required to use an accrual method of accounting. Tax return for students 2011 This election also does not apply to any costs incurred for the planting, cultivation, maintenance, or development of any citrus or almond grove (or any part thereof) within the first 4 years the trees were planted. Tax return for students 2011    If you elect not to use the uniform capitalization rules, you must use the alternative depreciation system for all property used in any of your farming businesses and placed in service in any tax year during which the election is in effect. Tax return for students 2011 See chapter 7, for additional information on depreciation. Tax return for students 2011 Example. Tax return for students 2011 You grow trees that have a preproductive period of more than 2 years. Tax return for students 2011 The trees produce an annual crop. Tax return for students 2011 You are an individual and the uniform capitalization rules apply to your farming business. Tax return for students 2011 You must capitalize the direct costs and an allocable part of indirect costs incurred due to the production of the trees. Tax return for students 2011 You are not required to capitalize the costs of producing the annual crop because its preproductive period is 2 years or less. Tax return for students 2011 Preproductive period of more than 2 years. Tax return for students 2011   The preproductive period of plants grown in commercial quantities in the United States is based on their nationwide weighted average preproductive period. Tax return for students 2011 Plants producing the crops or yields shown in Table 6-1 have a nationwide weighted average preproductive period of more than 2 years. Tax return for students 2011 Other plants (not shown in Table 6-1) may also have a nationwide weighted average preproductive period of more than 2 years. Tax return for students 2011 More information. Tax return for students 2011   For more information on the uniform capitalization rules that apply to property produced in a farming business, see Regulations section 1. Tax return for students 2011 263A-4. Tax return for students 2011 Table 6-1. Tax return for students 2011 Plants With a Preproductive Period of More Than 2 Years Plants producing the following crops or yields have a nationwide weighted average preproductive period of more than 2 years. Tax return for students 2011 Almonds Apples Apricots Avocados Blueberries Cherries Chestnuts Coffee beans Currants Dates Figs Grapefruit Grapes Guavas Kiwifruit Kumquats Lemons Limes Macadamia nuts Mangoes Nectarines Olives Oranges Peaches Pears Pecans Persimmons Pistachio nuts Plums Pomegranates Prunes Tangelos Tangerines Tangors Walnuts Adjusted Basis Before figuring gain or loss on a sale, exchange, or other disposition of property or figuring allowable depreciation, depletion, or amortization, you must usually make certain adjustments to the cost basis or basis other than cost (discussed later) of the property. Tax return for students 2011 The adjustments to the original basis are increases or decreases to the cost basis or other basis which result in the adjusted basis of the property. Tax return for students 2011 Increases to Basis Increase the basis of any property by all items properly added to a capital account. Tax return for students 2011 These include the cost of any improvements having a useful life of more than 1 year. Tax return for students 2011 The following costs increase the basis of property. Tax return for students 2011 The cost of extending utility service lines to property. Tax return for students 2011 Legal fees, such as the cost of defending and perfecting title. Tax return for students 2011 Legal fees for seeking a decrease in an assessment levied against property to pay for local improvements. Tax return for students 2011 Assessments for items such as paving roads and building ditches that increase the value of the property assessed. Tax return for students 2011 Do not deduct these expenses as taxes. Tax return for students 2011 However, you can deduct as taxes amounts assessed for maintenance or repairs, or for meeting interest charges related to the improvements. Tax return for students 2011 If you make additions or improvements to business property, depreciate the basis of each addition or improvement as separate depreciable property using the rules that would apply to the original property if you had placed it in service at the same time you placed the addition or improvement in service. Tax return for students 2011 See chapter 7. Tax return for students 2011 Deducting vs. Tax return for students 2011 capitalizing costs. Tax return for students 2011   Do not add to your basis costs you can deduct as current expenses. Tax return for students 2011 For example, amounts paid for incidental repairs or maintenance are deductible as business expenses and are not added to basis. Tax return for students 2011 However, you can elect either to deduct or to capitalize certain other costs. Tax return for students 2011 See chapter 7 in Publication 535. Tax return for students 2011 Decreases to Basis The following are some items that reduce the basis of property. Tax return for students 2011 Section 179 deduction. Tax return for students 2011 Deductions previously allowed or allowable for amortization, depreciation, and depletion. Tax return for students 2011 Alternative motor vehicle credit. Tax return for students 2011 See Form 8910. Tax return for students 2011 Alternative fuel vehicle refueling property credit. Tax return for students 2011 See Form 8911. Tax return for students 2011 Residential energy efficient property credits. Tax return for students 2011 See Form 5695. Tax return for students 2011 Investment credit (part or all) taken. Tax return for students 2011 Casualty and theft losses and insurance reimbursements. Tax return for students 2011 Payments you receive for granting an easement. Tax return for students 2011 Exclusion from income of subsidies for energy conservation measures. Tax return for students 2011 Certain canceled debt excluded from income. Tax return for students 2011 Rebates from a manufacturer or seller. Tax return for students 2011 Patronage dividends received from a cooperative association as a result of a purchase of property. Tax return for students 2011 See Patronage Dividends in chapter 3. Tax return for students 2011 Gas-guzzler tax. Tax return for students 2011 See Form 6197. Tax return for students 2011 Some of these items are discussed next. Tax return for students 2011 For a more detailed list of items that decrease basis, see section 1016 of the Internal Revenue Code and Publication 551. Tax return for students 2011 Depreciation and section 179 deduction. Tax return for students 2011   The adjustments you must make to the basis of the property if you take the section 179 deduction or depreciate the property are explained next. Tax return for students 2011 For more information on these deductions, see chapter 7. Tax return for students 2011 Section 179 deduction. Tax return for students 2011   If you take the section 179 expense deduction for all or part of the cost of qualifying business property, decrease the basis of the property by the deduction. Tax return for students 2011 Depreciation. Tax return for students 2011   Decrease the basis of property by the depreciation you deducted or could have deducted on your tax returns under the method of depreciation you chose. Tax return for students 2011 If you took less depreciation than you could have under the method chosen, decrease the basis by the amount you could have taken under that method. Tax return for students 2011 If you did not take a depreciation deduction, reduce the basis by the full amount of the depreciation you could have taken. Tax return for students 2011   If you deducted more depreciation than you should have, decrease your basis by the amount you should have deducted plus the part of the excess depreciation you deducted that actually reduced your tax liability for any year. Tax return for students 2011   See chapter 7 for information on figuring the depreciation you should have claimed. Tax return for students 2011   In decreasing your basis for depreciation, take into account the amount deducted on your tax returns as depreciation and any depreciation you must capitalize under the uniform capitalization rules. Tax return for students 2011 Casualty and theft losses. Tax return for students 2011   If you have a casualty or theft loss, decrease the basis of the property by any insurance or other reimbursement. Tax return for students 2011 Also, decrease it by any deductible loss not covered by insurance. Tax return for students 2011 See chapter 11 for information about figuring your casualty or theft loss. Tax return for students 2011   You must increase your basis in the property by the amount you spend on clean-up costs (such as debris removal) and repairs that restore the property to its pre-casualty condition. Tax return for students 2011 To make this determination, compare the repaired property to the property before the casualty. Tax return for students 2011 Easements. Tax return for students 2011   The amount you receive for granting an easement is usually considered to be proceeds from the sale of an interest in the real property. Tax return for students 2011 It reduces the basis of the affected part of the property. Tax return for students 2011 If the amount received is more than the basis of the part of the property affected by the easement, reduce your basis in that part to zero and treat the excess as a recognized gain. Tax return for students 2011 See Easements and rights-of-way in chapter 3. Tax return for students 2011 Exclusion from income of subsidies for energy conservation measures. Tax return for students 2011   You can exclude from gross income any subsidy you received from a public utility company for the purchase or installation of an energy conservation measure for a dwelling unit. Tax return for students 2011 Reduce the basis of the property by the excluded amount. Tax return for students 2011 Canceled debt excluded from income. Tax return for students 2011   If a debt you owe is canceled or forgiven, other than as a gift or bequest, you generally must include the canceled amount in your gross income for tax purposes. Tax return for students 2011 A debt includes any indebtedness for which you are liable or which attaches to property you hold. Tax return for students 2011   You can exclude your canceled debt from income if the debt is any of the following. Tax return for students 2011 Debt canceled in a bankruptcy case or when you are insolvent. Tax return for students 2011 Qualified farm debt. Tax return for students 2011 Qualified real property business debt (provided you are not a C corporation). Tax return for students 2011 Qualified principal residence indebtedness. Tax return for students 2011 Discharge of certain indebtedness of a qualified individual because of Midwestern disasters. Tax return for students 2011 If you exclude canceled debt described in (1) or (2), you may have to reduce the basis of your depreciable and nondepreciable property. Tax return for students 2011 If you exclude canceled debt described in (3), you must only reduce the basis of your depreciable property by the excluded amount. Tax return for students 2011   For more information about canceled debt in a bankruptcy case, see Publication 908, Bankruptcy Tax Guide. Tax return for students 2011 For more information about insolvency and canceled debt that is qualified farm debt or qualified principal residence indebtedness, see chapter 3. Tax return for students 2011 For more information about qualified real property business debt, see Publication 334, Tax Guide for Small Business. Tax return for students 2011 For more information about canceled debt in Midwestern disaster areas, see Publication 4492-B, Information for Affected Taxpayers in the Midwestern Disaster Areas. Tax return for students 2011 Basis Other Than Cost There are times when you cannot use cost as basis. Tax return for students 2011 In these situations, the fair market value or the adjusted basis of property may be used. Tax return for students 2011 Examples are discussed next. Tax return for students 2011 Property changed from personal to business or rental use. Tax return for students 2011   When you hold property for personal use and then change it to business use or use it to produce rent, you must figure its basis for depreciation. Tax return for students 2011 An example of changing property from personal to business use would be changing the use of your pickup truck that you originally purchased for your personal use to use in your farming business. Tax return for students 2011   The basis for depreciation is the lesser of: The FMV of the property on the date of the change, or Your adjusted basis on the date of the change. Tax return for students 2011   If you later sell or dispose of this property, the basis you use will depend on whether you are figuring a gain or loss. Tax return for students 2011 The basis for figuring a gain is your adjusted basis in the property when you sell the property. Tax return for students 2011 Figure the basis for a loss starting with the smaller of your adjusted basis or the FMV of the property at the time of the change to business or rental use. Tax return for students 2011 Then make adjustments (increases and decreases) for the period after the change in the property's use, as discussed earlier under Adjusted Basis . Tax return for students 2011 Property received for services. Tax return for students 2011   If you receive property for services, include the property's FMV in income. Tax return for students 2011 The amount you include in income becomes your basis. Tax return for students 2011 If the services were performed for a price agreed on beforehand, it will be accepted as the FMV of the property if there is no evidence to the contrary. Tax return for students 2011 Example. Tax return for students 2011 George Smith is an accountant and also operates a farming business. Tax return for students 2011 George agreed to do some accounting work for his neighbor in exchange for a dairy cow. Tax return for students 2011 The accounting work and the cow are each worth $1,500. Tax return for students 2011 George must include $1,500 in income for his accounting services. Tax return for students 2011 George's basis in the cow is $1,500. Tax return for students 2011 Taxable Exchanges A taxable exchange is one in which the gain is taxable, or the loss is deductible. Tax return for students 2011 A taxable gain or deductible loss also is known as a recognized gain or loss. Tax return for students 2011 A taxable exchange occurs when you receive cash or get property that is not similar or related in use to the property exchanged. Tax return for students 2011 If you receive property in exchange for other property in a taxable exchange, the basis of the property you receive is usually its FMV at the time of the exchange. Tax return for students 2011 Example. Tax return for students 2011 You trade a tract of farmland with an adjusted basis of $2,000 for a tractor that has an FMV of $6,000. Tax return for students 2011 You must report a taxable gain of $4,000 for the land. Tax return for students 2011 The tractor has a basis of $6,000. Tax return for students 2011 Involuntary Conversions If you receive property as a result of an involuntary conversion, such as a casualty, theft, or condemnation, figure the basis of the replacement property you receive using the basis of the converted property. Tax return for students 2011 Similar or related property. Tax return for students 2011   If the replacement property is similar or related in service or use to the converted property, the replacement property's basis is the same as the old property's basis on the date of the conversion. Tax return for students 2011 However, make the following adjustments. Tax return for students 2011 Decrease the basis by the following amounts. Tax return for students 2011 Any loss you recognize on the involuntary conversion. Tax return for students 2011 Any money you receive that you do not spend on similar property. Tax return for students 2011 Increase the basis by the following amounts. Tax return for students 2011 Any gain you recognize on the involuntary conversion. Tax return for students 2011 Any cost of acquiring the replacement property. Tax return for students 2011 Money or property not similar or related. Tax return for students 2011   If you receive money or property not similar or related in service or use to the converted property and you buy replacement property similar or related in service or use to the converted property, the basis of the replacement property is its cost decreased by the gain not recognized on the involuntary conversion. Tax return for students 2011 Allocating the basis. Tax return for students 2011   If you buy more than one piece of replacement property, allocate your basis among the properties based on their respective costs. Tax return for students 2011 Basis for depreciation. Tax return for students 2011   Special rules apply in determining and depreciating the basis of MACRS property acquired in an involuntary conversion. Tax return for students 2011 For information, see Figuring the Deduction for Property Acquired in a Nontaxable Exchange under Figuring Depreciation Under MACRS in chapter 7. Tax return for students 2011 For more information about involuntary conversions, see chapter 11. Tax return for students 2011 Nontaxable Exchanges A nontaxable exchange is an exchange in which you are not taxed on any gain and you cannot deduct any loss. Tax return for students 2011 A nontaxable gain or loss also is known as an unrecognized gain or loss. Tax return for students 2011 If you receive property in a nontaxable exchange, its basis is usually the same as the basis of the property you transferred. Tax return for students 2011 Like-Kind Exchanges The exchange of property for the same kind of property is the most common type of nontaxable exchange. Tax return for students 2011 For an exchange to qualify as a like-kind exchange, you must hold for business or investment purposes both the property you transfer and the property you receive. Tax return for students 2011 There must also be an exchange of like-kind property. Tax return for students 2011 For more information, see Like-Kind Exchanges in  chapter 8. Tax return for students 2011 The basis of the property you receive generally is the same as the adjusted basis of the property you gave up. Tax return for students 2011 Example 1. Tax return for students 2011 You traded a truck you used in your farming business for a new smaller truck to use in farming. Tax return for students 2011 The adjusted basis of the old truck was $10,000. Tax return for students 2011 The FMV of the new truck is $30,000. Tax return for students 2011 Because this is a nontaxable exchange, you do not recognize any gain, and your basis in the new truck is $10,000, the same as the adjusted basis of the truck you traded. Tax return for students 2011 Example 2. Tax return for students 2011 You trade a field cultivator (adjusted basis of $8,000) for a planter (FMV of $9,000). Tax return for students 2011 You use both the field cultivator and the planter in your farming business. Tax return for students 2011 The basis of the planter you receive is $8,000, the same as the field cultivator traded Exchange expenses. Tax return for students 2011   Exchange expenses generally are the closing costs that you pay. Tax return for students 2011 They include such items as brokerage commissions, attorney fees, and deed preparation fees. Tax return for students 2011 Add them to the basis of the like-kind property you receive. Tax return for students 2011 Property plus cash. Tax return for students 2011   If you trade property in a like-kind exchange and also pay money, the basis of the property you receive is the adjusted basis of the property you gave up plus the money you paid. Tax return for students 2011 Example. Tax return for students 2011 You trade in a truck (adjusted basis of $3,000) for another truck (FMV of $7,500) and pay $4,000. Tax return for students 2011 Your basis in the new truck is $7,000 (the $3,000 adjusted basis of the old truck plus the $4,000 cash). Tax return for students 2011 Special rules for related persons. Tax return for students 2011   If a like-kind exchange takes place directly or indirectly between related persons and either party disposes of the property within 2 years after the exchange, the exchange no longer qualifies for like-kind exchange treatment. Tax return for students 2011 Each person must report any gain or loss not recognized on the original exchange unless the loss is not deductible under the related party rules. Tax return for students 2011 Each person reports it on the tax return filed for the year in which the later disposition occurred. Tax return for students 2011 If this rule applies, the basis of the property received in the original exchange will be its FMV. Tax return for students 2011 For more information, see chapter 8. Tax return for students 2011 Exchange of business property. Tax return for students 2011   Exchanging the property of one business for the property of another business generally is a multiple property exchange. Tax return for students 2011 For information on figuring basis, see Multiple Property Exchanges in chapter 1 of Publication 544. Tax return for students 2011 Basis for depreciation. Tax return for students 2011   Special rules apply in determining and depreciating the basis of MACRS property acquired in a like-kind transaction. Tax return for students 2011 For information, see Figuring the Deduction for Property Acquired in a Nontaxable Exchange under Figuring Depreciation Under MACRS in chapter 7. Tax return for students 2011 Partially Nontaxable Exchanges A partially nontaxable exchange is an exchange in which you receive unlike property or money in addition to like-kind property. Tax return for students 2011 The basis of the property you receive is the same as the adjusted basis of the property you gave up with the following adjustments. Tax return for students 2011 Decrease the basis by the following amounts. Tax return for students 2011 Any money you receive. Tax return for students 2011 Any loss you recognize on the exchange. Tax return for students 2011 Increase the basis by the following amounts. Tax return for students 2011 Any additional costs you incur. Tax return for students 2011 Any gain you recognize on the exchange. Tax return for students 2011 If the other party to the exchange assumes your liabilities, treat the debt assumption as money you received in the exchange. Tax return for students 2011 Example 1. Tax return for students 2011 You trade farmland (basis of $100,000) for another tract of farmland (FMV of $110,000) and $30,000 cash. Tax return for students 2011 You realize a gain of $40,000. Tax return for students 2011 This is the FMV of the land received plus the cash minus the basis of the land you traded ($110,000 + $30,000 − $100,000). Tax return for students 2011 Include your gain in income (recognize gain) only to the extent of the cash received. Tax return for students 2011 Your basis in the land you received is figured as follows. Tax return for students 2011 Basis of land traded $100,000 Minus: Cash received (adjustment 1(a)) − 30,000   $70,000 Plus: Gain recognized (adjustment 2(b)) + 30,000 Basis of land received $100,000 Example 2. Tax return for students 2011 You trade a truck (adjusted basis of $22,750) for another truck (FMV of $20,000) and $10,000 cash. Tax return for students 2011 You realize a gain of $7,250. Tax return for students 2011 This is the FMV of the truck received plus the cash minus the adjusted basis of the truck you traded ($20,000 + $10,000 − $22,750). Tax return for students 2011 You include all the gain in your income (recognize gain) because the gain is less than the cash you received. Tax return for students 2011 Your basis in the truck you received is figured as follows. Tax return for students 2011 Adjusted basis of truck traded $22,750 Minus: Cash received (adjustment 1(a)) −10,000   $12,750 Plus: Gain recognized (adjustment 2(b)) + 7,250 Basis of truck received $20,000 Allocation of basis. Tax return for students 2011   If you receive like-kind and unlike properties in the exchange, allocate the basis first to the unlike property, other than money, up to its FMV on the date of the exchange. Tax return for students 2011 The rest is the basis of the like-kind property. Tax return for students 2011 Example. Tax return for students 2011 You traded a tractor with an adjusted basis of $15,000 for another tractor that had an FMV of $12,500. Tax return for students 2011 You also received $1,000 cash and a truck that had an FMV of $3,000. Tax return for students 2011 The truck is unlike property. Tax return for students 2011 You realized a gain of $1,500. Tax return for students 2011 This is the FMV of the tractor received plus the FMV of the truck received plus the cash minus the adjusted basis of the tractor you traded ($12,500 + $3,000 + $1,000 − $15,000). Tax return for students 2011 You include in income (recognize) all $1,500 of the gain because it is less than the FMV of the unlike property plus the cash received. Tax return for students 2011 Your basis in the properties you received is figured as follows. Tax return for students 2011 Adjusted basis of old tractor $15,000 Minus: Cash received (adjustment 1(a)) − 1,000   $14,000 Plus: Gain recognized (adjustment 2(b)) + 1,500 Total basis of properties received $15,500 Allocate the total basis of $15,500 first to the unlike property—the truck ($3,000). Tax return for students 2011 This is the truck's FMV. Tax return for students 2011 The rest ($12,500) is the basis of the tractor. Tax return for students 2011 Sale and Purchase If you sell property and buy similar property in two mutually dependent transactions, you may have to treat the sale and purchase as a single nontaxable exchange. Tax return for students 2011 Example. Tax return for students 2011 You used a tractor on your farm for 3 years. Tax return for students 2011 Its adjusted basis is $22,000 and its FMV is $40,000. Tax return for students 2011 You are interested in a new tractor, which sells for $60,000. Tax return for students 2011 Ordinarily, you would trade your old tractor for the new one and pay the dealer $20,000. Tax return for students 2011 Your basis for depreciating the new tractor would then be $42,000 ($20,000 + $22,000, the adjusted basis of your old tractor). Tax return for students 2011 However, you want a higher basis for depreciating the new tractor, so you agree to pay the dealer $60,000 for the new tractor if he will pay you $40,000 for your old tractor. Tax return for students 2011 Because the two transactions are dependent on each other, you are treated as having exchanged your old tractor for the new one and paid $20,000 ($60,000 − $40,000). Tax return for students 2011 Your basis for depreciating the new tractor is $42,000, the same as if you traded the old tractor. Tax return for students 2011 Property Received as a Gift To figure the basis of property you receive as a gift, you must know its adjusted basis (defined earlier) to the donor just before it was given to you. Tax return for students 2011 You also must know its FMV at the time it was given to you and any gift tax paid on it. Tax return for students 2011 FMV equal to or greater than donor's adjusted basis. Tax return for students 2011   If the FMV of the property is equal to or greater than the donor's adjusted basis, your basis is the donor's adjusted basis when you received the gift. Tax return for students 2011 Increase your basis by all or part of any gift tax paid, depending on the date of the gift. Tax return for students 2011   Also, for figuring gain or loss from a sale or other disposition of the property, or for figuring depreciation, depletion, or amortization deductions on business property, you must increase or decrease your basis (the donor's adjusted basis) by any required adjustments to basis while you held the property. Tax return for students 2011 See Adjusted Basis , earlier. Tax return for students 2011   If you received a gift during the tax year, increase your basis in the gift (the donor's adjusted basis) by the part of the gift tax paid on it due to the net increase in value of the gift. Tax return for students 2011 Figure the increase by multiplying the gift tax paid by the following fraction. Tax return for students 2011 Net increase in value of the gift Amount of the gift   The net increase in value of the gift is the FMV of the gift minus the donor's adjusted basis. Tax return for students 2011 The amount of the gift is its value for gift tax purposes after reduction by any annual exclusion and marital or charitable deduction that applies to the gift. Tax return for students 2011 Example. Tax return for students 2011 In 2013, you received a gift of property from your mother that had an FMV of $50,000. Tax return for students 2011 Her adjusted basis was $20,000. Tax return for students 2011 The amount of the gift for gift tax purposes was $36,000 ($50,000 minus the $14,000 annual exclusion). Tax return for students 2011 She paid a gift tax of $7,320. Tax return for students 2011 Your basis, $26,076, is figured as follows. Tax return for students 2011 Fair market value $50,000 Minus: Adjusted basis −20,000 Net increase in value $30,000 Gift tax paid $7,320 Multiplied by ($30,000 ÷ $36,000) × . Tax return for students 2011 83 Gift tax due to net increase in value $6,076 Adjusted basis of property to your mother +20,000 Your basis in the property $26,076 Note. Tax return for students 2011 If you received a gift before 1977, your basis in the gift (the donor's adjusted basis) includes any gift tax paid on it. Tax return for students 2011 However, your basis cannot exceed the FMV of the gift when it was given to you. Tax return for students 2011 FMV less than donor's adjusted basis. Tax return for students 2011   If the FMV of the property at the time of the gift is less than the donor's adjusted basis, your basis depends on whether you have a gain or a loss when you dispose of the property. Tax return for students 2011 Your basis for figuring gain is the donor's adjusted basis plus or minus any required adjustments to basis while you held the property. Tax return for students 2011 Your basis for figuring loss is its FMV when you received the gift plus or minus any required adjustments to basis while you held the property. Tax return for students 2011 (See Adjusted Basis , earlier. Tax return for students 2011 )   If you use the donor's adjusted basis for figuring a gain and get a loss, and then use the FMV for figuring a loss and get a gain, you have neither gain nor loss on the sale or other disposition of the property. Tax return for students 2011 Example. Tax return for students 2011 You received farmland as a gift from your parents when they retired from farming. Tax return for students 2011 At the time of the gift, the land had an FMV of $80,000. Tax return for students 2011 Your parents' adjusted basis was $100,000. Tax return for students 2011 After you received the land, no events occurred that would increase or decrease your basis. Tax return for students 2011 If you sell the land for $120,000, you will have a $20,000 gain because you must use the donor's adjusted basis at the time of the gift ($100,000) as your basis to figure a gain. Tax return for students 2011 If you sell the land for $70,000, you will have a $10,000 loss because you must use the FMV at the time of the gift ($80,000) as your basis to figure a loss. Tax return for students 2011 If the sales price is between $80,000 and $100,000, you have neither gain nor loss. Tax return for students 2011 For instance, if the sales price was $90,000 and you tried to figure a gain using the donor's adjusted basis ($100,000), you would get a $10,000 loss. Tax return for students 2011 If you then tried to figure a loss using the FMV ($80,000), you would get a $10,000 gain. Tax return for students 2011 Business property. Tax return for students 2011   If you hold the gift as business property, your basis for figuring any depreciation, depletion, or amortization deductions is the same as the donor's adjusted basis plus or minus any required adjustments to basis while you hold the property. Tax return for students 2011 Property Transferred From a Spouse The basis of property transferred to you or transferred in trust for your benefit by your spouse is the same as your spouse's adjusted basis. Tax return for students 2011 The same rule applies to a transfer by your former spouse if the transfer is incident to divorce. Tax return for students 2011 However, for property transferred in trust, adjust your basis for any gain recognized by your spouse or former spouse if the liabilities assumed plus the liabilities to which the property is subject are more than the adjusted basis of the property transferred. Tax return for students 2011 The transferor must give you the records needed to determine the adjusted basis and holding period of the property as of the date of the transfer. Tax return for students 2011 For more information, see Property Settlements in Publication 504, Divorced or Separated Individuals. Tax return for students 2011 Inherited Property Your basis in property you inherited from a decedent, who died before January 1, 2010, or after December 31, 2010, is generally one of the following: The FMV of the property at the date of the decedent's death. Tax return for students 2011 If a federal estate return is filed, you can use its appraised value. Tax return for students 2011 The FMV on the alternate valuation date, if the personal representative for the estate elects to use alternate valuation. Tax return for students 2011 For information on the alternate valuation, see the Instructions for Form 706. Tax return for students 2011 The decedent's adjusted basis in land to the extent of the value that is excluded from the decedent's taxable estate as a qualified conservation easement. Tax return for students 2011 If a federal estate tax return does not have to be filed, your basis in the inherited property is its appraised value at the date of death for state inheritance or transmission taxes. Tax return for students 2011 Special-use valuation method. Tax return for students 2011   Under certain conditions, when a person dies, the executor or personal representative of that person's estate may elect to value qualified real property at other than its FMV. Tax return for students 2011 If so, the executor or personal representative values the qualified real property based on its use as a farm or other closely held business. Tax return for students 2011 If the executor or personal representative elects this method of valuation for estate tax purposes, this value is the basis of the property for the qualified heirs. Tax return for students 2011 The qualified heirs should be able to get the necessary value from the executor or personal representative of the estate. Tax return for students 2011   If you are a qualified heir who received special-use valuation property, increase your basis by any gain recognized by the estate or trust because of post-death appreciation. Tax return for students 2011 Post-death appreciation is the property's FMV on the date of distribution minus the property's FMV either on the date of the individual's death or on the alternate valuation date. Tax return for students 2011 Figure all FMVs without regard to the special-use valuation. Tax return for students 2011   You may be liable for an additional estate tax if, within 10 years after the death of the decedent, you transfer the property or the property stops being used as a farm. Tax return for students 2011 This tax does not apply if you dispose of the property in a like-kind exchange or in an involuntary conversion in which all of the proceeds are reinvested in qualified replacement property. Tax return for students 2011 The tax also does not apply if you transfer the property to a member of your family and certain requirements are met. Tax return for students 2011   You can elect to increase your basis in special-use valuation property if it becomes subject to the additional estate tax. Tax return for students 2011 To increase your basis, you must make an irrevocable election and pay interest on the additional estate tax figured from the date 9 months after the decedent's death until the date of payment of the additional estate tax. Tax return for students 2011 If you meet these requirements, increase your basis in the property to its FMV on the date of the decedent's death or the alternate valuation date. Tax return for students 2011 The increase in your basis is considered to have occurred immediately before the event that resulted in the additional estate tax. Tax return for students 2011   You make the election by filing, with Form 706-A, United States Additional Estate Tax Return, a statement that: Contains your (and the estate's) name, address, and taxpayer identification number; Identifies the election as an election under section 1016(c) of the Internal Revenue Code; Specifies the property for which you are making the election; and Provides any additional information required by the Form 706-A instructions. Tax return for students 2011   For more information, see Form 706, United States Estate (and Generation-Skipping Transfer) Tax Return, Form 706-A, and the related instructions. Tax return for students 2011 Property inherited from a decedent who died in 2010. Tax return for students 2011   If you inherited property from a decedent who died in 2010, different rules may apply. Tax return for students 2011 See Publication 4895, Tax Treatment of Property Acquired From a Decendent Dying in 2010, for details. Tax return for students 2011 Property Distributed From a Partnership or Corporation The following rules apply to determine a partner's basis and a shareholder's basis in property distributed respectively from a partnership to the partner with respect to the partner's interest in the partnership and from a corporation to the shareholder with respect to the shareholder's ownership of stock in the corporation. Tax return for students 2011 Partner's basis. Tax return for students 2011   Unless there is a complete liquidation of a partner's interest, the basis of property (other than money) distributed by a partnership to the partner is its adjusted basis to the partnership immediately before the distribution. Tax return for students 2011 However, the basis of the property to the partner cannot be more than the adjusted basis of his or her interest in the partnership reduced by any money received in the same transaction. Tax return for students 2011 For more information, see Partner's Basis for Distributed Property in Publication 541, Partnerships. Tax return for students 2011 Shareholder's basis. Tax return for students 2011   The basis of property distributed by a corporation to a shareholder is its fair market value. Tax return for students 2011 For more information about corporate distributions, see Distributions to Shareholders in Publication 542, Corporations. 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