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Tax ez Publication 534 - Introductory Material Table of Contents Important Change for 1995 Introduction How To Use This Publication Important Change for 1995 Major changes to Publications 534 and 946. Tax ez  This publication, as well as Publication 946,How To Depreciate Property, has been changed. Tax ez Publication 534 has been shortened. Tax ez It no longer contains general information on MACRS and the section 179 deduction. Tax ez It contains a discussion of the accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS), the ACRS Percentage Tables, a discussion of other methods of depreciation, and a limited discussion of listed property. Tax ez We expanded Publication 946 by adding material taken from Publication 534. Tax ez We added more detail to the discussions of the section 179 deduction, the modified accelerated cost recovery system (MACRS), and listed property. Tax ez We replaced the partialMACRS Percentage Tables with the complete ones from Publication 534. Tax ez We also added the Table of Class Lives and Recovery Periods from Publication 534. Tax ez We made these changes to eliminate most of the duplication that existed in the two publications. Tax ez This will save money and make it easier for you to decide which publication you need. Tax ez Use this publication to figure depreciation on property you placed in service before 1987; use Publication 946 to figure depreciation on property you placed in service after 1986. Tax ez Introduction The law allows you to recover your cost in business or income-producing property through yearly tax deductions. Tax ez You do this by depreciating your property, that is, by deducting some of your cost on your tax return each year. Tax ez You can depreciate both tangible property, such as a car, building, or machinery, and certain intangible property, such as a copyright or a patent. Tax ez The amount you can deduct depends on: How much the property cost, When you began using it, How long it will take to recover your cost, and Which of several depreciation methods you use. Tax ez Depreciation defined. Tax ez   Depreciation is a loss in the value of property over the time the property is being used. Tax ez Events that can cause property to depreciate include wear and tear, age, deterioration, and obsolescence. Tax ez You can get back your cost of certain property, such as equipment you use in your business or property used for the production of income by taking deductions for depreciation. Tax ez Black's Law Dictionary Amortization. Tax ez   Amortization is similar to depreciation. Tax ez Using amortization, you can recover your cost or basis in certain property proportionately over a specific number of years or months. Tax ez Examples of costs you can amortize are the costs of starting a business, reforestation, and pollution control facilities. Tax ez You can find information on amortization inchapter 12 of Publication 535, Business Expenses. Tax ez Alternative minimum tax. Tax ez   If you use accelerated depreciation for real property, or personal property that is leased to others, you may be liable for the alternative minimum tax. Tax ez Accelerated depreciation is any method, that allows recovery at a faster rate in the earlier years than the straight line method. Tax ez For more information, you may wish to see the following: Form 6251, Alternative Minimum Tax-Individuals, and Publication 542, Tax Information on Corporations. Tax ez Ordering publications and forms. Tax ez   To order free publications and forms, 1-800-TAX-FORM (1-800-829-3676). Tax ez You can also write to the IRS Forms Distribution Center nearest you. Tax ez Check your income tax package for the address. Tax ez   If you have access to a personal computer and a modem, you can also get many forms and publications electronically. Tax ez See How To Get Forms and Publications in your income tax package for details. Tax ez Telephone help. Tax ez   You can call the IRS with your tax question Monday through Friday during regular business hours. Tax ez Check your telephone book for the local number or you can call1-800-829-1040. Tax ez Telephone help for hearing-impaired persons. Tax ez   If you have access to TDD equipment, you can call 1-800-829-4059 with your tax question or to order forms and publications. Tax ez See your tax package for the hours of operation. Tax ez How To Use This Publication This publication describes the kinds of property that can be depreciated and the methods used to figure depreciation on property placed in service before 1987. Tax ez It is divided into three chapters and contains an appendix. Tax ez Chapter 1 explains the rules for depreciating property under the Accelerated Cost Recovery System (ACRS). Tax ez Chapter 2 explains the rules for depreciating property first used before 1981. Tax ez Chapter 3 explains the rules for listed property. Tax ez Also this chapter defines listed property. Tax ez The appendix contains the ACRS Percentage Tables. Tax ez Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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Tax ez Publication 537 - Main Content Table of Contents What Is an Installment Sale?Special rule. Tax ez General RulesFiguring Installment Sale Income Reporting Installment Sale Income Other RulesElecting Out of the Installment Method Payments Received or Considered Received Escrow Account Depreciation Recapture Income Sale to a Related Person Like-Kind Exchange Contingent Payment Sale Single Sale of Several Assets Sale of a Business Unstated Interest and Original Issue Discount (OID) Disposition of an Installment Obligation Repossession Interest on Deferred Tax Reporting an Installment SaleRelated person. Tax ez Several assets. Tax ez Special situations. Tax ez Schedule D (Form 1040). Tax ez Form 4797. Tax ez How To Get Tax Help What Is an Installment Sale? An installment sale is a sale of property where you receive at least one payment after the tax year of the sale. Tax ez The rules for installment sales do not apply if you elect not to use the installment method (see Electing Out of the Installment Method under Other Rules, later) or the transaction is one for which the installment method may not apply. Tax ez The installment sales method cannot be used for the following. Tax ez Sale of inventory. Tax ez   The regular sale of inventory of personal property does not qualify as an installment sale even if you receive a payment after the year of sale. Tax ez See Sale of a Business under Other Rules, later. Tax ez Dealer sales. Tax ez   Sales of personal property by a person who regularly sells or otherwise disposes of the same type of personal property on the installment plan are not installment sales. Tax ez This rule also applies to real property held for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business. Tax ez However, the rule does not apply to an installment sale of property used or produced in farming. Tax ez Special rule. Tax ez   Dealers of time-shares and residential lots can treat certain sales as installment sales and report them under the installment method if they elect to pay a special interest charge. Tax ez For more information, see section 453(l). Tax ez Stock or securities. Tax ez   You cannot use the installment method to report gain from the sale of stock or securities traded on an established securities market. Tax ez You must report the entire gain on the sale in the year in which the trade date falls. Tax ez Installment obligation. Tax ez   The buyer's obligation to make future payments to you can be in the form of a deed of trust, note, land contract, mortgage, or other evidence of the buyer's debt to you. Tax ez General Rules If a sale qualifies as an installment sale, the gain must be reported under the installment method unless you elect out of using the installment method. Tax ez See Electing Out of the Installment Method under Other Rules, later, for information on recognizing the entire gain in the year of sale. Tax ez Sale at a loss. Tax ez   If your sale results in a loss, you cannot use the installment method. Tax ez If the loss is on an installment sale of business or investment property, you can deduct it only in the tax year of sale. Tax ez Unstated interest. Tax ez   If your sale calls for payments in a later year and the sales contract provides for little or no interest, you may have to figure unstated interest, even if you have a loss. Tax ez See Unstated Interest and Original Issue Discount (OID) under Other Rules, later. Tax ez Figuring Installment Sale Income You can use the following discussions or Form 6252 to help you determine gross profit, contract price, gross profit percentage, and installment sale income. Tax ez Each payment on an installment sale usually consists of the following three parts. Tax ez Interest income. Tax ez Return of your adjusted basis in the property. Tax ez Gain on the sale. Tax ez In each year you receive a payment, you must include in income both the interest part and the part that is your gain on the sale. Tax ez You do not include in income the part that is the return of your basis in the property. Tax ez Basis is the amount of your investment in the property for installment sale purposes. Tax ez Interest Income You must report interest as ordinary income. Tax ez Interest is generally not included in a down payment. Tax ez However, you may have to treat part of each later payment as interest, even if it is not called interest in your agreement with the buyer. Tax ez Interest provided in the agreement is called stated interest. Tax ez If the agreement does not provide for enough stated interest, there may be unstated interest or original issue discount. Tax ez See Unstated Interest and Original Issue Discount (OID) under Other Rules, later. Tax ez Adjusted Basis and Installment Sale Income (Gain on Sale) After you have determined how much of each payment to treat as interest, you treat the rest of each payment as if it were made up of two parts. Tax ez A tax-free return of your adjusted basis in the property, and Your gain (referred to as installment sale income on Form 6252). Tax ez Figuring adjusted basis for installment sale purposes. Tax ez   You can use Worksheet A to figure your adjusted basis in the property for installment sale purposes. Tax ez When you have completed the worksheet, you will also have determined the gross profit percentage necessary to figure your installment sale income (gain) for this year. Tax ez Worksheet A. Tax ez Figuring Adjusted Basis and Gross Profit Percentage 1. Tax ez Enter the selling price for the property   2. Tax ez Enter your adjusted basis for the property     3. Tax ez Enter your selling expenses     4. Tax ez Enter any depreciation recapture     5. Tax ez Add lines 2, 3, and 4. Tax ez  This is your adjusted basis for installment sale purposes   6. Tax ez Subtract line 5 from line 1. Tax ez If zero or less, enter -0-. Tax ez  This is your gross profit     If the amount entered on line 6 is zero, stop here. Tax ez You cannot use the installment method. Tax ez   7. Tax ez Enter the contract price for the property   8. Tax ez Divide line 6 by line 7. Tax ez This is your gross profit percentage   Selling price. Tax ez   The selling price is the total cost of the property to the buyer and includes any of the following. Tax ez Any money you are to receive. Tax ez The fair market value (FMV) of any property you are to receive (FMV is discussed in Property Used As a Payment under Other Rules, later). Tax ez Any existing mortgage or other debt the buyer pays, assumes, or takes (a note, mortgage, or any other liability, such as a lien, accrued interest, or taxes you owe on the property). Tax ez Any of your selling expenses the buyer pays. Tax ez   Do not include stated interest, unstated interest, any amount recomputed or recharacterized as interest, or original issue discount. Tax ez Adjusted basis for installment sale purposes. Tax ez   Your adjusted basis is the total of the following three items. Tax ez Adjusted basis. Tax ez Selling expenses. Tax ez Depreciation recapture. Tax ez Adjusted basis. Tax ez   Basis is your investment in the property for installment sale purposes. Tax ez The way you figure basis depends on how you acquire the property. Tax ez The basis of property you buy is generally its cost. Tax ez The basis of property you inherit, receive as a gift, build yourself, or receive in a tax-free exchange is figured differently. Tax ez   While you own property, various events may change your original basis. Tax ez Some events, such as adding rooms or making permanent improvements, increase basis. Tax ez Others, such as deductible casualty losses or depreciation previously allowed or allowable, decrease basis. Tax ez The result is adjusted basis. Tax ez   For more information on how to figure basis and adjusted basis, see Publication 551. Tax ez For more information regarding your basis in property you inherited from someone who died in 2010 and whose executor filed Form 8939, Allocation of Increase In Basis for Property Acquired From a Decedent, see Publication 4895. Tax ez Selling expenses. Tax ez   Selling expenses relate to the sale of the property. Tax ez They include commissions, attorney fees, and any other expenses paid on the sale. Tax ez Selling expenses are added to the basis of the sold property. Tax ez Depreciation recapture. Tax ez   If the property you sold was depreciable property, you may need to recapture part of the gain on the sale as ordinary income. Tax ez See Depreciation Recapture Income under Other Rules, later. Tax ez Gross profit. Tax ez   Gross profit is the total gain you report on the installment method. Tax ez   To figure your gross profit, subtract your adjusted basis for installment sale purposes from the selling price. Tax ez If the property you sold was your home, subtract from the gross profit any gain you can exclude. Tax ez See Sale of Your Home , later, under Reporting Installment Sale Income. Tax ez Contract price. Tax ez   Contract price equals: The selling price, minus The mortgages, debts, and other liabilities assumed or taken by the buyer, plus The amount by which the mortgages, debts, and other liabilities assumed or taken by the buyer exceed your adjusted basis for installment sale purposes. Tax ez Gross profit percentage. Tax ez   A certain percentage of each payment (after subtracting interest) is reported as installment sale income. Tax ez This percentage is called the gross profit percentage and is figured by dividing your gross profit from the sale by the contract price. Tax ez   The gross profit percentage generally remains the same for each payment you receive. Tax ez However, see the Example under Selling Price Reduced, later, for a situation where the gross profit percentage changes. Tax ez Example. Tax ez You sell property at a contract price of $6,000 and your gross profit is $1,500. Tax ez Your gross profit percentage is 25% ($1,500 ÷ $6,000). Tax ez After subtracting interest, you report 25% of each payment, including the down payment, as installment sale income from the sale for the tax year you receive the payment. Tax ez The remainder (balance) of each payment is the tax-free return of your adjusted basis. Tax ez Amount to report as installment sale income. Tax ez   Multiply the payments you receive each year (less interest) by the gross profit percentage. Tax ez The result is your installment sale income for the tax year. Tax ez In certain circumstances, you may be treated as having received a payment, even though you received nothing directly. Tax ez A receipt of property or the assumption of a mortgage on the property sold may be treated as a payment. Tax ez For a detailed discussion, see Payments Received or Considered Received under Other Rules, later. Tax ez Selling Price Reduced If the selling price is reduced at a later date, the gross profit on the sale also will change. Tax ez You then must refigure the gross profit percentage for the remaining payments. Tax ez Refigure your gross profit using Worksheet B. Tax ez You will spread any remaining gain over future installments. Tax ez Worksheet B. Tax ez New Gross Profit Percentage — Selling Price Reduced 1. Tax ez Enter the reduced selling  price for the property   2. Tax ez Enter your adjusted  basis for the  property     3. Tax ez Enter your selling  expenses     4. Tax ez Enter any depreciation  recapture     5. Tax ez Add lines 2, 3, and 4. Tax ez   6. Tax ez Subtract line 5 from line 1. Tax ez  This is your adjusted  gross profit   7. Tax ez Enter any installment sale  income reported in  prior year(s)   8. Tax ez Subtract line 7 from line 6   9. Tax ez Future installments   10. Tax ez Divide line 8 by line 9. Tax ez  This is your new gross profit percentage*   * Apply this percentage to all future payments to determine how much of each of those payments is installment sale income. Tax ez Example. Tax ez In 2011, you sold land with a basis of $40,000 for $100,000. Tax ez Your gross profit was $60,000. Tax ez You received a $20,000 down payment and the buyer's note for $80,000. Tax ez The note provides for four annual payments of $20,000 each, plus 8% interest, beginning in 2012. Tax ez Your gross profit percentage is 60%. Tax ez You reported a gain of $12,000 on each payment received in 2011 and 2012. Tax ez In 2013, you and the buyer agreed to reduce the purchase price to $85,000 and payments during 2013, 2014, and 2015 are reduced to $15,000 for each year. Tax ez The new gross profit percentage, 46. Tax ez 67%, is figured on Example—Worksheet B. Tax ez You will report a gain of $7,000 (46. Tax ez 67% of $15,000) on each of the $15,000 installments due in 2013, 2014, and 2015. Tax ez Example — Worksheet B. Tax ez New Gross Profit Percentage — Selling Price Reduced 1. Tax ez Enter the reduced selling  price for the property 85,000 2. Tax ez Enter your adjusted  basis for the  property 40,000   3. Tax ez Enter your selling  expenses -0-   4. Tax ez Enter any depreciation  recapture -0-   5. Tax ez Add lines 2, 3, and 4. Tax ez 40,000 6. Tax ez Subtract line 5 from line 1. Tax ez  This is your adjusted  gross profit 45,000 7. Tax ez Enter any installment sale  income reported in  prior year(s) 24,000 8. Tax ez Subtract line 7 from line 6 21,000 9. Tax ez Future installments 45,000 10. Tax ez Divide line 8 by line 9. Tax ez  This is your new gross profit percentage* 46. Tax ez 67% * Apply this percentage to all future payments to determine how much of each of those payments is installment sale income. Tax ez Reporting Installment Sale Income Generally, you will use Form 6252 to report installment sale income from casual sales of real or personal property during the tax year. Tax ez You also will have to report the installment sale income on Schedule D (Form 1040), Capital Gains and Losses, or Form 4797, or both. Tax ez See Schedule D (Form 1040) and Form 4797 , later. Tax ez If the property was your main home, you may be able to exclude part or all of the gain. Tax ez See Sale of Your Home , later. Tax ez Form 6252 Use Form 6252 to report an installment sale in the year it takes place and to report payments received, or considered received because of related party resales, in later years. Tax ez Attach it to your tax return for each year. Tax ez Form 6252 will help you determine the gross profit, contract price, gross profit percentage, and installment sale income. Tax ez Which parts to complete. Tax ez   Which part to complete depends on whether you are filing the form for the year of sale or a later year. Tax ez Year of sale. Tax ez   Complete lines 1 through 4, Part I, and Part II. Tax ez If you sold property to a related party during the year, also complete Part III. Tax ez Later years. Tax ez   Complete lines 1 through 4 and Part II for any year in which you receive a payment from an installment sale. Tax ez   If you sold a marketable security to a related party after May 14, 1980, and before January 1, 1987, complete Form 6252 for each year of the installment agreement, even if you did not receive a payment. Tax ez (After December 31, 1986, the installment method is not available for the sale of marketable securities. Tax ez ) Complete lines 1 through 4 and Part II for any year in which you receive a payment from the sale. Tax ez Complete Part III unless you received the final payment during the tax year. Tax ez   If you sold property other than a marketable security to a related party after May 14, 1980, complete Form 6252 for the year of sale and for 2 years after the year of sale, even if you did not receive a payment. Tax ez Complete lines 1 through 4 and Part II for any year during this 2-year period in which you receive a payment from the sale. Tax ez Complete Part III for the 2 years after the year of sale unless you received the final payment during the tax year. Tax ez Schedule D (Form 1040) Enter the gain figured on Form 6252 (line 26) for personal-use property (capital assets) on Schedule D (Form 1040), as a short-term gain (line 4) or long-term gain (line 11). Tax ez If your gain from the installment sale qualifies for long-term capital gain treatment in the year of sale, it will continue to qualify in later tax years. Tax ez Your gain is long-term if you owned the property for more than 1 year when you sold it. Tax ez Form 4797 An installment sale of property used in your business or that earns rent or royalty income may result in a capital gain, an ordinary gain, or both. Tax ez All or part of any gain from the disposition of the property may be ordinary gain from depreciation recapture. Tax ez For trade or business property held for more than 1 year, enter the amount from line 26 of Form 6252 on Form 4797, line 4. Tax ez If the property was held 1 year or less or you have an ordinary gain from the sale of a noncapital asset (even if the holding period is more than 1 year), enter this amount on Form 4797, line 10, and write “From Form 6252. Tax ez ” Sale of Your Home If you sell your home, you may be able to exclude all or part of the gain on the sale. Tax ez See Publication 523 for information about excluding the gain. Tax ez If the sale is an installment sale, any gain you exclude is not included in gross profit when figuring your gross profit percentage. Tax ez Seller-financed mortgage. Tax ez   If you finance the sale of your home to an individual, both you and the buyer may have to follow special reporting procedures. Tax ez   When you report interest income received from a buyer who uses the property as a personal residence, write the buyer's name, address, and social security number (SSN) on line 1 of Schedule B (Form 1040A or 1040), Interest and Ordinary Dividends. Tax ez   When deducting the mortgage interest, the buyer must write your name, address, and SSN on line 11 of Schedule A (Form 1040), Itemized Deductions. Tax ez   If either person fails to include the other person's SSN, a $50 penalty will be assessed. Tax ez Other Rules The rules discussed in this part of the publication apply only in certain circumstances or to certain types of property. Tax ez The following topics are discussed. Tax ez Electing out of the installment method. Tax ez Payments received or considered received. Tax ez Escrow account. Tax ez Depreciation recapture income. Tax ez Sale to a related person. Tax ez Like-kind exchange. Tax ez Contingent payment sale. Tax ez Single sale of several assets. Tax ez Sale of a business. Tax ez Unstated interest and original issue discount. Tax ez Disposition of an installment obligation. Tax ez Repossession. Tax ez Interest on deferred tax. Tax ez Electing Out of the Installment Method If you elect not to use the installment method, you generally report the entire gain in the year of sale, even though you do not receive all the sale proceeds in that year. Tax ez To figure the amount of gain to report, use the fair market value (FMV) of the buyer's installment obligation that represents the buyer's debt to you. Tax ez Notes, mortgages, and land contracts are examples of obligations that are included at FMV. Tax ez You must figure the FMV of the buyer's installment obligation, whether or not you would actually be able to sell it. Tax ez If you use the cash method of accounting, the FMV of the obligation will never be considered to be less than the FMV of the property sold (minus any other consideration received). Tax ez Example. Tax ez You sold a parcel of land for $50,000. Tax ez You received a $10,000 down payment and will receive the balance over the next 10 years at $4,000 a year, plus 8% interest. Tax ez The buyer gave you a note for $40,000. Tax ez The note had an FMV of $40,000. Tax ez You paid a commission of 6%, or $3,000, to a broker for negotiating the sale. Tax ez The land cost $25,000, and you owned it for more than one year. Tax ez You decide to elect out of the installment method and report the entire gain in the year of sale. Tax ez Gain realized:     Selling price $50,000 Minus: Property's adj. Tax ez basis $25,000     Commission 3,000 28,000 Gain realized $22,000 Gain recognized in year of sale:   Cash $10,000 Market value of note 40,000 Total realized in year of sale $50,000 Minus: Property's adj. Tax ez basis $25,000     Commission 3,000 28,000 Gain recognized $22,000 The recognized gain of $22,000 is long-term capital gain. Tax ez You include the entire gain in income in the year of sale, so you do not include in income any principal payments you receive in later tax years. Tax ez The interest on the note is ordinary income and is reported as interest income each year. Tax ez How to elect out. Tax ez   To make this election, do not report your sale on Form 6252. Tax ez Instead, report it on Form 8949, Sales and Other Dispositions of Capital Assets, Form 4797, or both. Tax ez When to elect out. Tax ez   Make this election by the due date, including extensions, for filing your tax return for the year the sale takes place. Tax ez Automatic six-month extension. Tax ez   If you timely file your tax return without making the election, you still can make the election by filing an amended return within 6 months of the due date of your return (excluding extensions). Tax ez Write “Filed pursuant to section 301. Tax ez 9100-2” at the top of the amended return and file it where the original return was filed. Tax ez Revoking the election. Tax ez   Once made, the election can be revoked only with IRS approval. Tax ez A revocation is retroactive. Tax ez You will not be allowed to revoke the election if either of the following applies. Tax ez One of the purposes is to avoid federal income tax. Tax ez The tax year in which any payment was received has closed. Tax ez Payments Received or Considered Received You must figure your gain each year on the payments you receive, or are treated as receiving, from an installment sale. Tax ez In certain situations, you are considered to have received a payment, even though the buyer does not pay you directly. Tax ez These situations occur when the buyer assumes or pays any of your debts, such as a loan, or pays any of your expenses, such as a sales commission. Tax ez However, as discussed later, the buyer's assumption of your debt is treated as a recovery of your basis rather than as a payment in many cases. Tax ez Buyer Pays Seller's Expenses If the buyer pays any of your expenses related to the sale of your property, it is considered a payment to you in the year of sale. Tax ez Include these expenses in the selling and contract prices when figuring the gross profit percentage. Tax ez Buyer Assumes Mortgage If the buyer assumes or pays off your mortgage, or otherwise takes the property subject to the mortgage, the following rules apply. Tax ez Mortgage not more than basis. Tax ez   If the buyer assumes a mortgage that is not more than your installment sale basis in the property, it is not considered a payment to you. Tax ez It is considered a recovery of your basis. Tax ez The contract price is the selling price minus the mortgage. Tax ez Example. Tax ez You sell property with an adjusted basis of $19,000. Tax ez You have selling expenses of $1,000. Tax ez The buyer assumes your existing mortgage of $15,000 and agrees to pay you $10,000 (a cash down payment of $2,000 and $2,000 (plus 12% interest) in each of the next 4 years). Tax ez The selling price is $25,000 ($15,000 + $10,000). Tax ez Your gross profit is $5,000 ($25,000 − $20,000 installment sale basis). Tax ez The contract price is $10,000 ($25,000 − $15,000 mortgage). Tax ez Your gross profit percentage is 50% ($5,000 ÷ $10,000). Tax ez You report half of each $2,000 payment received as gain from the sale. Tax ez You also report all interest you receive as ordinary income. Tax ez Mortgage more than basis. Tax ez   If the buyer assumes a mortgage that is more than your installment sale basis in the property, you recover your entire basis. Tax ez The part of the mortgage greater than your basis is treated as a payment received in the year of sale. Tax ez   To figure the contract price, subtract the mortgage from the selling price. Tax ez This is the total amount (other than interest) you will receive directly from the buyer. Tax ez Add to this amount the payment you are considered to have received (the difference between the mortgage and your installment sale basis). Tax ez The contract price is then the same as your gross profit from the sale. Tax ez    If the mortgage the buyer assumes is equal to or more than your installment sale basis, the gross profit percentage always will be 100%. Tax ez Example. Tax ez The selling price for your property is $9,000. Tax ez The buyer will pay you $1,000 annually (plus 8% interest) over the next 3 years and assume an existing mortgage of $6,000. Tax ez Your adjusted basis in the property is $4,400. Tax ez You have selling expenses of $600, for a total installment sale basis of $5,000. Tax ez The part of the mortgage that is more than your installment sale basis is $1,000 ($6,000 − $5,000). Tax ez This amount is included in the contract price and treated as a payment received in the year of sale. Tax ez The contract price is $4,000: Selling price $9,000 Minus: Mortgage (6,000) Amount actually received $3,000 Add difference:   Mortgage $6,000   Minus: Installment sale basis 5,000 1,000 Contract price $4,000       Your gross profit on the sale is also $4,000: Selling price $9,000 Minus: Installment sale basis (5,000) Gross profit $4,000 Your gross profit percentage is 100%. Tax ez Report 100% of each payment (less interest) as gain from the sale. Tax ez Treat the $1,000 difference between the mortgage and your installment sale basis as a payment and report 100% of it as gain in the year of sale. Tax ez Mortgage Canceled If the buyer of your property is the person who holds the mortgage on it, your debt is canceled, not assumed. Tax ez You are considered to receive a payment equal to the outstanding canceled debt. Tax ez Example. Tax ez Mary Jones loaned you $45,000 in 2009 in exchange for a note and a mortgage in a tract of land you owned. Tax ez On April 4, 2013, she bought the land for $70,000. Tax ez At that time, $30,000 of her loan to you was outstanding. Tax ez She agreed to forgive this $30,000 debt and to pay you $20,000 (plus interest) on August 1, 2013, and $20,000 on August 1, 2014. Tax ez She did not assume an existing mortgage. Tax ez She canceled the $30,000 debt you owed her. Tax ez You are considered to have received a $30,000 payment at the time of the sale. Tax ez Buyer Assumes Other Debts If the buyer assumes any other debts, such as a loan or back taxes, it may be considered a payment to you in the year of sale. Tax ez If the buyer assumes the debt instead of paying it off, only part of it may have to be treated as a payment. Tax ez Compare the debt to your installment sale basis in the property being sold. Tax ez If the debt is less than your installment sale basis, none of it is treated as a payment. Tax ez If it is more, only the difference is treated as a payment. Tax ez If the buyer assumes more than one debt, any part of the total that is more than your installment sale basis is considered a payment. Tax ez These rules are the same as the rules discussed earlier under Buyer Assumes Mortgage . Tax ez However, they apply only to the following types of debt the buyer assumes. Tax ez Those acquired from ownership of the property you are selling, such as a mortgage, lien, overdue interest, or back taxes. Tax ez Those acquired in the ordinary course of your business, such as a balance due for inventory you purchased. Tax ez If the buyer assumes any other type of debt, such as a personal loan or your legal fees relating to the sale, it is treated as if the buyer had paid off the debt at the time of the sale. Tax ez The value of the assumed debt is then considered a payment to you in the year of sale. Tax ez Property Used As a Payment If you receive property other than money from the buyer, it is still considered a payment in the year received. Tax ez However, see Like-Kind Exchange , later. Tax ez Generally, the amount of the payment is the property's FMV on the date you receive it. Tax ez Exception. Tax ez   If the property the buyer gives you is payable on demand or readily tradable, the amount you should consider as payment in the year received is: The FMV of the property on the date you receive it if you use the cash method of accounting, The face amount of the obligation on the date you receive it if you use the accrual method of accounting, or The stated redemption price at maturity less any original issue discount (OID) or, if there is no OID, the stated redemption price at maturity appropriately discounted to reflect total unstated interest. Tax ez See Unstated Interest and Original Issue Discount (OID) , later. Tax ez Debt not payable on demand. Tax ez   Any evidence of debt you receive from the buyer not payable on demand is not considered a payment. Tax ez This is true even if the debt is guaranteed by a third party, including a government agency. Tax ez Fair market value (FMV). Tax ez   This is the price at which property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither being under any compulsion to buy or sell and both having a reasonable knowledge of all the necessary facts. Tax ez Third-party note. Tax ez   If the property the buyer gives you is a third-party note (or other obligation of a third party), you are considered to have received a payment equal to the note's FMV. Tax ez Because the FMV of the note is itself a payment on your installment sale, any payments you later receive from the third party are not considered payments on the sale. Tax ez The excess of the note's face value over its FMV is interest. Tax ez Exclude this interest in determining the selling price of the property. Tax ez However, see Exception under Property Used As a Payment, earlier. Tax ez Example. Tax ez You sold real estate in an installment sale. Tax ez As part of the down payment, the buyer assigned to you a $50,000, 8% interest third-party note. Tax ez The FMV of the third-party note at the time of the sale was $30,000. Tax ez This amount, not $50,000, is a payment to you in the year of sale. Tax ez The third-party note had an FMV equal to 60% of its face value ($30,000 ÷ $50,000), so 60% of each principal payment you receive on this note is a nontaxable return of capital. Tax ez The remaining 40% is interest taxed as ordinary income. Tax ez Bond. Tax ez   A bond or other evidence of debt you receive from the buyer that is payable on demand or readily tradable in an established securities market is treated as a payment in the year you receive it. Tax ez For more information on the amount you should treat as a payment, see Exception under Property Used As a Payment, earlier. Tax ez    If you receive a government or corporate bond for a sale before October 22, 2004, and the bond has interest coupons attached or can be readily traded in an established securities market, you are considered to have received payment equal to the bond's FMV. Tax ez However, see Exception under Property Used As a Payment, earlier. Tax ez Buyer's note. Tax ez   The buyer's note (unless payable on demand) is not considered payment on the sale. Tax ez However, its full face value is included when figuring the selling price and the contract price. Tax ez Payments you receive on the note are used to figure your gain in the year received. Tax ez Installment Obligation Used as Security (Pledge Rule) If you use an installment obligation to secure any debt, the net proceeds from the debt may be treated as a payment on the installment obligation. Tax ez This is known as the pledge rule, and it applies if the selling price of the property is over $150,000. Tax ez It does not apply to the following dispositions. Tax ez Sales of property used or produced in farming. Tax ez Sales of personal-use property. Tax ez Qualifying sales of time-shares and residential lots. Tax ez The net debt proceeds are the gross debt minus the direct expenses of getting the debt. Tax ez The amount treated as a payment is considered received on the later of the following dates. Tax ez The date the debt becomes secured. Tax ez The date you receive the debt proceeds. Tax ez A debt is secured by an installment obligation to the extent that payment of principal or interest on the debt is directly secured (under the terms of the loan or any underlying arrangement) by any interest in the installment obligation. Tax ez For sales after December 16, 1999, payment on a debt is treated as directly secured by an interest in an installment obligation to the extent an arrangement allows you to satisfy all or part of the debt with the installment obligation. Tax ez Limit. Tax ez   The net debt proceeds treated as a payment on the pledged installment obligation cannot be more than the excess of item (1) over item (2), below. Tax ez The total contract price on the installment sale. Tax ez Any payments received on the installment obligation before the date the net debt proceeds are treated as a payment. Tax ez Installment payments. Tax ez   The pledge rule accelerates the reporting of the installment obligation payments. Tax ez Do not report payments received on the obligation after it has been pledged until the payments received exceed the amount reported under the pledge rule. Tax ez Exception. Tax ez   The pledge rule does not apply to pledges made after December 17, 1987, to refinance a debt under the following circumstances. Tax ez The debt was outstanding on December 17, 1987. Tax ez The debt was secured by that installment sale obligation on that date and at all times thereafter until the refinancing occurred. Tax ez   A refinancing as a result of the creditor's calling of the debt is treated as a continuation of the original debt so long as a person other than the creditor or a person related to the creditor provides the refinancing. Tax ez   This exception applies only to refinancing that does not exceed the principal of the original debt immediately before the refinancing. Tax ez Any excess is treated as a payment on the installment obligation. Tax ez Escrow Account In some cases, the sales agreement or a later agreement may call for the buyer to establish an irrevocable escrow account from which the remaining installment payments (including interest) are to be made. Tax ez These sales cannot be reported on the installment method. Tax ez The buyer's obligation is paid in full when the balance of the purchase price is deposited into the escrow account. Tax ez When an escrow account is established, you no longer rely on the buyer for the rest of the payments, but on the escrow arrangement. Tax ez Example. Tax ez You sell property for $100,000. Tax ez The sales agreement calls for a down payment of $10,000 and payment of $15,000 in each of the next 6 years to be made from an irrevocable escrow account containing the balance of the purchase price plus interest. Tax ez You cannot report the sale on the installment method because the full purchase price is considered received in the year of sale. Tax ez You report the entire gain in the year of sale. Tax ez Escrow established in a later year. Tax ez   If you make an installment sale and in a later year an irrevocable escrow account is established to pay the remaining installments plus interest, the amount placed in the escrow account represents payment of the balance of the installment obligation. Tax ez Substantial restriction. Tax ez   If an escrow arrangement imposes a substantial restriction on your right to receive the sale proceeds, the sale can be reported on the installment method, provided it otherwise qualifies. Tax ez For an escrow arrangement to impose a substantial restriction, it must serve a bona fide purpose of the buyer, that is, a real and definite restriction placed on the seller or a specific economic benefit conferred on the buyer. Tax ez Depreciation Recapture Income If you sell property for which you claimed or could have claimed a depreciation deduction, you must report any depreciation recapture income in the year of sale, whether or not an installment payment was received that year. Tax ez Figure your depreciation recapture income (including the section 179 deduction and the section 179A deduction recapture) in Part III of Form 4797. Tax ez Report the recapture income in Part II of Form 4797 as ordinary income in the year of sale. Tax ez The recapture income is also included in Part I of Form 6252. Tax ez However, the gain equal to the recapture income is reported in full in the year of the sale. Tax ez Only the gain greater than the recapture income is reported on the installment method. Tax ez For more information on depreciation recapture, see chapter 3 in Publication 544. Tax ez The recapture income reported in the year of sale is included in your installment sale basis in determining your gross profit on the installment sale. Tax ez Determining gross profit is discussed under General Rules , earlier. Tax ez Sale to a Related Person If you sell depreciable property to a related person and the sale is an installment sale, you may not be able to report the sale using the installment method. Tax ez If you sell property to a related person and the related person disposes of the property before you receive all payments with respect to the sale, you may have to treat the amount realized by the related person as received by you when the related person disposes of the property. Tax ez These rules are explained under Sale of Depreciable Property and under Sale and Later Disposition , later. Tax ez Sale of Depreciable Property If you sell depreciable property to certain related persons, you generally cannot report the sale using the installment method. Tax ez Instead, all payments to be received are considered received in the year of sale. Tax ez However, see Exception , below. Tax ez Depreciable property for this rule is any property the purchaser can depreciate. Tax ez Payments to be received include the total of all noncontingent payments and the FMV of any payments contingent as to amount. Tax ez In the case of contingent payments for which the FMV cannot be reasonably determined, your basis in the property is recovered proportionately. Tax ez The purchaser cannot increase the basis of the property acquired in the sale before the seller includes a like amount in income. Tax ez Exception. Tax ez   You can use the installment method to report a sale of depreciable property to a related person if no significant tax deferral benefit will be derived from the sale. Tax ez You must show to the satisfaction of the IRS that avoidance of federal income tax was not one of the principal purposes of the sale. Tax ez Related person. Tax ez   Related persons include the following. Tax ez A person and all controlled entities with respect to that person. Tax ez A taxpayer and any trust in which such taxpayer (or his spouse) is a beneficiary, unless that beneficiary's interest in the trust is a remote contingent interest. Tax ez Except in the case of a sale or exchange in satisfaction of a pecuniary bequest, an executor of an estate and a beneficiary of that estate. Tax ez Two or more partnerships in which the same person owns, directly or indirectly, more than 50% of the capital interests or the profits interests. Tax ez   For information about which entities are controlled entities, see section 1239(c). Tax ez Sale and Later Disposition Generally, a special rule applies if you sell or exchange property to a related person on the installment method (first disposition) who then sells, exchanges, or gives away the property (second disposition) under the following circumstances. Tax ez The related person makes the second disposition before making all payments on the first disposition. Tax ez The related person disposes of the property within 2 years of the first disposition. Tax ez This rule does not apply if the property involved is marketable securities. Tax ez Under this rule, you treat part or all of the amount the related person realizes (or the FMV if the disposed property is not sold or exchanged) from the second disposition as if you received it at the time of the second disposition. Tax ez See Exception , later. Tax ez Related person. Tax ez   Related persons include the following. Tax ez Members of a family, including only brothers and sisters (either whole or half), husband and wife, ancestors, and lineal descendants. Tax ez A partnership or estate and a partner or beneficiary. Tax ez A trust (other than a section 401(a) employees trust) and a beneficiary. Tax ez A trust and an owner of the trust. Tax ez Two corporations that are members of the same controlled group as defined in section 267(f). Tax ez The fiduciaries of two different trusts, and the fiduciary and beneficiary of two different trusts, if the same person is the grantor of both trusts. Tax ez A tax-exempt educational or charitable organization and a person (if an individual, including members of the individual's family) who directly or indirectly controls such an organization. Tax ez An individual and a corporation when the individual owns, directly or indirectly, more than 50% of the value of the outstanding stock of the corporation. Tax ez A fiduciary of a trust and a corporation when the trust or the grantor of the trust owns, directly or indirectly, more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of the corporation. Tax ez The grantor and fiduciary, and the fiduciary and beneficiary, of any trust. Tax ez Any two S corporations if the same persons own more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of each corporation. Tax ez An S corporation and a corporation that is not an S corporation if the same persons own more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of each corporation. Tax ez A corporation and a partnership if the same persons own more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of the corporation and more than 50% of the capital or profits interest in the partnership. Tax ez An executor and a beneficiary of an estate unless the sale is in satisfaction of a pecuniary bequest. Tax ez Example 1. Tax ez In 2012, Harvey Green sold farm land to his son Bob for $500,000, which was to be paid in five equal payments over 5 years, plus adequate stated interest on the balance due. Tax ez His installment sale basis for the farm land was $250,000 and the property was not subject to any outstanding liens or mortgages. Tax ez His gross profit percentage is 50% (gross profit of $250,000 ÷ contract price of $500,000). Tax ez He received $100,000 in 2012 and included $50,000 in income for that year ($100,000 × 0. Tax ez 50). Tax ez Bob made no improvements to the property and sold it to Alfalfa Inc. Tax ez , in 2013 for $600,000 after making the payment for that year. Tax ez The amount realized from the second disposition is $600,000. Tax ez Harvey figures his installment sale income for 2013 as follows: Lesser of: 1) Amount realized on second disposition, or 2) Contract price on first disposition $500,000 Subtract: Sum of payments from Bob in 2012 and 2013 - 200,000 Amount treated as received because of second disposition $300,000 Add: Payment from Bob in 2013 + 100,000 Total payments received and treated as received for 2013 $400,000 Multiply by gross profit % × . Tax ez 50 Installment sale income for 2013 $200,000 Harvey will not include in his installment sale income any principal payments he receives on the installment obligation for 2014, 2015, and 2016 because he has already reported the total payments of $500,000 from the first disposition ($100,000 in 2012 and $400,000 in 2013). Tax ez Example 2. Tax ez Assume the facts are the same as Example 1 except that Bob sells the property for only $400,000. Tax ez The gain for 2013 is figured as follows: Lesser of: 1) Amount realized on second disposition, or 2) Contract price on first disposition $400,000 Subtract: Sum of payments from Bob in 2012 and 2013 − 200,000 Amount treated as received because of second disposition $200,000 Add: Payment from Bob in 2013 + 100,000 Total payments received and treated as received for 2013 $300,000 Multiply by gross profit % × . Tax ez 50 Installment sale income for 2013 $150,000     Harvey receives a $100,000 payment in 2014 and another in 2015. Tax ez They are not taxed because he treated the $200,000 from the disposition in 2013 as a payment received and paid tax on the installment sale income. Tax ez In 2016, he receives the final $100,000 payment. Tax ez He figures the installment sale income he must recognize in 2016 as follows: Total payments from the first disposition received by the end of 2016 $500,000 Minus the sum of:     Payment from 2012 $100,000   Payment from 2013 100,000   Amount treated as received in 2013 200,000   Total on which gain was previously recognized  − 400,000 Payment on which gain is recognized for 2016  $100,000 Multiply by gross profit % × . Tax ez 50 Installment sale income for 2016 $ 50,000 Exception. Tax ez   This rule does not apply to a second disposition, and any later transfer, if you can show to the satisfaction of the IRS that neither the first disposition (to the related person) nor the second disposition had as one of its principal purposes the avoidance of federal income tax. Tax ez Generally, an involuntary second disposition will qualify under the nontax avoidance exception, such as when a creditor of the related person forecloses on the property or the related person declares bankruptcy. Tax ez   The nontax avoidance exception also applies to a second disposition that is also an installment sale if the terms of payment under the installment resale are substantially equal to or longer than those for the first installment sale. Tax ez However, the exception does not apply if the resale terms permit significant deferral of recognition of gain from the first sale. Tax ez   In addition, any sale or exchange of stock to the issuing corporation is not treated as a first disposition. Tax ez An involuntary conversion is not treated as a second disposition if the first disposition occurred before the threat of conversion. Tax ez A transfer after the death of the person making the first disposition or the related person's death, whichever is earlier, is not treated as a second disposition. Tax ez Like-Kind Exchange If you trade business or investment property solely for the same kind of property to be held as business or investment property, you can postpone reporting the gain. Tax ez These trades are known as like-kind exchanges. Tax ez The property you receive in a like-kind exchange is treated as if it were a continuation of the property you gave up. Tax ez You do not have to report any part of your gain if you receive only like-kind property. Tax ez However, if you also receive money or other property (boot) in the exchange, you must report your gain to the extent of the money and the FMV of the other property received. Tax ez For more information on like-kind exchanges, see Like-Kind Exchanges in chapter 1 of Publication 544. Tax ez Installment payments. Tax ez   If, in addition to like-kind property, you receive an installment obligation in the exchange, the following rules apply to determine the installment sale income each year. Tax ez The contract price is reduced by the FMV of the like-kind property received in the trade. Tax ez The gross profit is reduced by any gain on the trade that can be postponed. Tax ez Like-kind property received in the trade is not considered payment on the installment obligation. Tax ez Example. Tax ez In 2013, George Brown trades personal property with an installment sale basis of $400,000 for like-kind property having an FMV of $200,000. Tax ez He also receives an installment note for $800,000 in the trade. Tax ez Under the terms of the note, he is to receive $100,000 (plus interest) in 2014 and the balance of $700,000 (plus interest) in 2015. Tax ez George's selling price is $1,000,000 ($800,000 installment note + $200,000 FMV of like-kind property received). Tax ez His gross profit is $600,000 ($1,000,000 − $400,000 installment sale basis). Tax ez The contract price is $800,000 ($1,000,000 − $200,000). Tax ez The gross profit percentage is 75% ($600,000 ÷ $800,000). Tax ez He reports no gain in 2013 because the like-kind property he receives is not treated as a payment for figuring gain. Tax ez He reports $75,000 gain for 2014 (75% of $100,000 payment received) and $525,000 gain for 2015 (75% of $700,000 payment received). Tax ez Deferred exchanges. Tax ez   A deferred exchange is one in which you transfer property you use in business or hold for investment and receive like-kind property later that you will use in business or hold for investment. Tax ez Under this type of exchange, the person receiving your property may be required to place funds in an escrow account or trust. Tax ez If certain rules are met, these funds will not be considered a payment until you have the right to receive the funds or, if earlier, the end of the exchange period. Tax ez See Regulations section 1. Tax ez 1031(k)-1(j)(2) for these rules. Tax ez Contingent Payment Sale A contingent payment sale is one in which the total selling price cannot be determined by the end of the tax year of sale. Tax ez This happens, for example, if you sell your business and the selling price includes a percentage of its profits in future years. Tax ez If the selling price cannot be determined by the end of the tax year, you must use different rules to figure the contract price and the gross profit percentage than those you use for an installment sale with a fixed selling price. Tax ez For rules on using the installment method for a contingent payment sale, see Regulations section 15a. Tax ez 453-1(c). Tax ez Single Sale of Several Assets If you sell different types of assets in a single sale, you must identify each asset to determine whether you can use the installment method to report the sale of that asset. Tax ez You also have to allocate part of the selling price to each asset. Tax ez If you sell assets that constitute a trade or business, see Sale of a Business , later. Tax ez Unless an allocation of the selling price has been agreed to by both parties in an arm's-length transaction, you must allocate the selling price to an asset based on its FMV. Tax ez If the buyer assumes a debt, or takes the property subject to a debt, you must reduce the FMV of the property by the debt. Tax ez This becomes the net FMV. Tax ez A sale of separate and unrelated assets of the same type under a single contract is reported as one transaction for the installment method. Tax ez However, if an asset is sold at a loss, its disposition cannot be reported on the installment method. Tax ez It must be reported separately. Tax ez The remaining assets sold at a gain are reported together. Tax ez Example. Tax ez You sold three separate and unrelated parcels of real property (A, B, and C) under a single contract calling for a total selling price of $130,000. Tax ez The total selling price consisted of a cash payment of $20,000, the buyer's assumption of a $30,000 mortgage on parcel B, and an installment obligation of $80,000 payable in eight annual installments, plus interest at 8% a year. Tax ez Your installment sale basis for each parcel was $15,000. Tax ez Your net gain was $85,000 ($130,000 − $45,000). Tax ez You report the gain on the installment method. Tax ez The sales contract did not allocate the selling price or the cash payment received in the year of sale among the individual parcels. Tax ez The FMV of parcels A, B, and C were $60,000, $60,000, and $10,000, respectively. Tax ez The installment sale basis for parcel C was more than its FMV, so it was sold at a loss and must be treated separately. Tax ez You must allocate the total selling price and the amounts received in the year of sale between parcel C and the remaining parcels. Tax ez Of the total $130,000 selling price, you must allocate $120,000 to parcels A and B together and $10,000 to parcel C. Tax ez You should allocate the cash payment of $20,000 received in the year of sale and the note receivable on the basis of their proportionate net FMV. Tax ez The allocation is figured as follows:   Parcels   A and B Parcel C FMV $120,000 $10,000 Minus: Mortgage assumed 30,000 -0- Net FMV $ 90,000 $10,000 Proportionate net FMV:     Percentage of total 90% 10% Payments in year of sale:     $20,000 × 90% $18,000   $20,000 × 10%   $2,000 Excess of parcel B mortgage over installment sale basis 15,000 -0- Allocation of payments  received (or considered  received) in year of sale $ 33,000 $ 2,000 You cannot report the sale of parcel C on the installment method because the sale results in a loss. Tax ez You report this loss of $5,000 ($10,000 selling price − $15,000 installment sale basis) in the year of sale. Tax ez However, if parcel C was held for personal use, the loss is not deductible. Tax ez You allocate the installment obligation of $80,000 to the properties sold based on their proportionate net FMVs (90% to parcels A and B, 10% to parcel C). Tax ez Sale of a Business The installment sale of an entire business for one overall price under a single contract is not the sale of a single asset. Tax ez Allocation of Selling Price To determine whether any of the gain on the sale of the business can be reported on the installment method, you must allocate the total selling price and the payments received in the year of sale between each of the following classes of assets. Tax ez Assets sold at a loss. Tax ez Real and personal property eligible for the installment method. Tax ez Real and personal property ineligible for the installment method, including: Inventory, Dealer property, and Stocks and securities. Tax ez Inventory. Tax ez   The sale of inventories of personal property cannot be reported on the installment method. Tax ez All gain or loss on their sale must be reported in the year of sale, even if you receive payment in later years. Tax ez   If inventory items are included in an installment sale, you may have an agreement stating which payments are for inventory and which are for the other assets being sold. Tax ez If you do not, each payment must be allocated between the inventory and the other assets sold. Tax ez   Report the amount you receive (or will receive) on the sale of inventory items as ordinary business income. Tax ez Use your basis in the inventory to figure the cost of goods sold. Tax ez Deduct the part of the selling expenses allocated to inventory as an ordinary business expense. Tax ez Residual method. Tax ez   Except for assets exchanged under the like-kind exchange rules, both the buyer and seller of a business must use the residual method to allocate the sale price to each business asset sold. Tax ez This method determines gain or loss from the transfer of each asset and the buyer's basis in the assets. Tax ez   The residual method must be used for any transfer of a group of assets that constitutes a trade or business and for which the buyer's basis is determined only by the amount paid for the assets. Tax ez This applies to both direct and indirect transfers, such as the sale of a business or the sale of a partnership interest in which the basis of the buyer's share of the partnership assets is adjusted for the amount paid under section 743(b). Tax ez   A group of assets constitutes a trade or business if goodwill or going concern value could, under any circumstances, attach to the assets or if the use of the assets would constitute an active trade or business under section 355. Tax ez   The residual method provides for the consideration to be reduced first by cash and general deposit accounts (including checking and savings accounts but excluding certificates of deposit). Tax ez The consideration remaining after this reduction must be allocated among the various business assets in a certain order. Tax ez   For asset acquisitions occurring after March 15, 2001, make the allocation among the following assets in proportion to (but not more than) their fair market value on the purchase date in the following order. Tax ez Certificates of deposit, U. Tax ez S. Tax ez Government securities, foreign currency, and actively traded personal property, including stock and securities. Tax ez Accounts receivable, other debt instruments, and assets that you mark to market at least annually for federal income tax purposes. Tax ez However, see Regulations section 1. Tax ez 338-6(b)(2)(iii) for exceptions that apply to debt instruments issued by persons related to a target corporation, contingent debt instruments, and debt instruments convertible into stock or other property. Tax ez Property of a kind that would properly be included in inventory if on hand at the end of the tax year or property held by the taxpayer primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. Tax ez All other assets except section 197 intangibles. Tax ez Section 197 intangibles except goodwill and going concern value. Tax ez Goodwill and going concern value (whether or not they qualify as section 197 intangibles). Tax ez   If an asset described in (1) through (6) is includible in more than one category, include it in the lower number category. Tax ez For example, if an asset is described in both (4) and (6), include it in (4). Tax ez Agreement. Tax ez   The buyer and seller may enter into a written agreement as to the allocation of any consideration or the fair market value of any of the assets. Tax ez This agreement is binding on both parties unless the IRS determines the amounts are not appropriate. Tax ez Reporting requirement. Tax ez   Both the buyer and seller involved in the sale of business assets must report to the IRS the allocation of the sales price among section 197 intangibles and the other business assets. Tax ez Use Form 8594, Asset Acquisition Statement Under Section 1060, to provide this information. Tax ez The buyer and seller should each attach Form 8594 to their federal income tax return for the year in which the sale occurred. Tax ez Sale of Partnership Interest A partner who sells a partnership interest at a gain may be able to report the sale on the installment method. Tax ez The sale of a partnership interest is treated as the sale of a single capital asset. Tax ez The part of any gain or loss from unrealized receivables or inventory items will be treated as ordinary income. Tax ez (The term “unrealized receivables” includes depreciation recapture income, discussed earlier. Tax ez ) The gain allocated to the unrealized receivables and the inventory cannot be reported under the installment method. Tax ez The gain allocated to the other assets can be reported under the installment method. Tax ez For more information on the treatment of unrealized receivables and inventory, see Publication 541. Tax ez Example — Sale of a Business On June 4, 2013, you sold the machine shop you had operated since 2005. Tax ez You received a $100,000 down payment and the buyer's note for $120,000. Tax ez The note payments are $15,000 each, plus 10% interest, due every July 1 and January 1, beginning in 2014. Tax ez The total selling price is $220,000. Tax ez Your selling expenses are $11,000. Tax ez The selling expenses are divided among all the assets sold, including inventory. Tax ez Your selling expense for each asset is 5% of the asset's selling price ($11,000 selling expense ÷ $220,000 total selling price). Tax ez The FMV, adjusted basis, and depreciation claimed on each asset sold are as follows:     Depre- ciation Adj. Tax ez Asset FMV Claimed Basis Inventory $ 10,000 -0- $ 8,000 Land 42,000 -0- 15,000 Building 48,000 $9,000 36,000 Machine A 71,000 27,200 63,800 Machine B 24,000 12,960 22,040 Truck 6,500 18,624 5,376   $201,500 $67,784 $150,216         Under the residual method, you allocate the selling price to each of the assets based on their FMV ($201,500). Tax ez The remaining $18,500 ($220,000 - $201,500) is allocated to your section 197 intangible, goodwill. Tax ez The assets included in the sale, their selling prices based on their FMVs, the selling expense allocated to each asset, the adjusted basis, and the gain for each asset are shown in the following chart. Tax ez   Sale  Price Sale   Exp. Tax ez Adj. Tax ez   Basis Gain Inventory $ 10,000 $ 500 $ 8,000 $ 1,500 Land 42,000 2,100 15,000 24,900 Building 48,000 2,400 36,000 9,600 Mch. Tax ez A 71,000 3,550 63,800 3,650 Mch. Tax ez B 24,000 1,200 22,040 760 Truck 6,500 325 5,376 799 Goodwill 18,500 925 -0- 17,575   $220,000 $11,000 $150,216 $58,784 The building was acquired in 2005, the year the business began, and it is section 1250 property. Tax ez There is no depreciation recapture income because the building was depreciated using the straight line method. Tax ez All gain on the truck, machine A, and machine B is depreciation recapture income since it is the lesser of the depreciation claimed or the gain on the sale. Tax ez Figure depreciation recapture in Part III of Form 4797. Tax ez The total depreciation recapture income reported in Part II of Form 4797 is $5,209. Tax ez This consists of $3,650 on machine A, $799 on the truck, and $760 on machine B (the gain on each item because it was less than the depreciation claimed). Tax ez These gains are reported in full in the year of sale and are not included in the installment sale computation. Tax ez Of the $220,000 total selling price, the $10,000 for inventory assets cannot be reported using the installment method. Tax ez The selling prices of the truck and machines are also removed from the total selling price because gain on these items is reported in full in the year of sale. Tax ez The selling price equals the contract price for the installment sale ($108,500). Tax ez The assets included in the installment sale, their selling price, and their installment sale bases are shown in the following chart. Tax ez   Selling  Price Install- ment  Sale  Basis Gross  Profit Land $ 42,000 $17,100 $24,900 Building 48,000 38,400 9,600 Goodwill 18,500 925 17,575 Total $108,500 $56,425 $52,075         The gross profit percentage (gross profit ÷ contract price) for the installment sale is 48% ($52,075 ÷ $108,500). Tax ez The gross profit percentage for each asset is figured as follows: Percentage Land— $24,900 ÷ $108,500 22. Tax ez 95 Building— $9,600 ÷ $108,500 8. Tax ez 85 Goodwill— $17,575 ÷ $108,500 16. Tax ez 20 Total 48. Tax ez 00 The sale includes assets sold on the installment method and assets for which the gain is reported in full in the year of sale, so payments must be allocated between the installment part of the sale and the part reported in the year of sale. Tax ez The selling price for the installment sale is $108,500. Tax ez This is 49. Tax ez 3% of the total selling price of $220,000 ($108,500 ÷ $220,000). Tax ez The selling price of assets not reported on the installment method is $111,500. Tax ez This is 50. Tax ez 7% ($111,500 ÷ $220,000) of the total selling price. Tax ez Multiply principal payments by 49. Tax ez 3% to determine the part of the payment for the installment sale. Tax ez The balance, 50. Tax ez 7%, is for the part reported in the year of the sale. Tax ez The gain on the sale of the inventory, machines, and truck is reported in full in the year of sale. Tax ez When you receive principal payments in later years, no part of the payment for the sale of these assets is included in gross income. Tax ez Only the part for the installment sale (49. Tax ez 3%) is used in the installment sale computation. Tax ez The only payment received in 2013 is the down payment of $100,000. Tax ez The part of the payment for the installment sale is $49,300 ($100,000 × 49. Tax ez 3%). Tax ez This amount is used in the installment sale computation. Tax ez Installment income for 2013. Tax ez   Your installment income for each asset is the gross profit percentage for that asset times $49,300, the installment income received in 2013. Tax ez Income Land—22. Tax ez 95% of $49,300 $11,314 Building—8. Tax ez 85% of $49,300 4,363 Goodwill—16. Tax ez 2% of $49,300 7,987 Total installment income for 2013 $23,664 Installment income after 2013. Tax ez   You figure installment income for years after 2013 by applying the same gross profit percentages to 49. Tax ez 3% of the total payments you receive on the buyer's note during the year. Tax ez Unstated Interest and Original Issue Discount (OID) An installment sale contract may provide that each deferred payment on the sale will include interest or that there will be an interest payment in addition to the principal payment. Tax ez Interest provided in the contract is called stated interest. Tax ez If an installment sale contract does not provide for adequate stated interest, part of the stated principal amount of the contract may be recharacterized as interest. Tax ez If section 483 applies to the contract, this interest is called unstated interest. Tax ez If section 1274 applies to the contract, this interest is called original issue discount (OID). Tax ez An installment sale contract does not provide for adequate stated interest if the stated interest rate is lower than the test rate (defined later). Tax ez Treatment of unstated interest and OID. Tax ez   Generally, if a buyer gives a debt in consideration for personal use property, the unstated interest rules do not apply. Tax ez As a result, the buyer cannot deduct the unstated interest. Tax ez The seller must report the unstated interest as income. Tax ez   Personal-use property is any property in which substantially all of its use by the buyer is not in connection with a trade or business or an investment activity. Tax ez   If the debt is subject to the section 483 rules and is also subject to the below-market loan rules, such as a gift loan, compensation-related loan, or corporation-shareholder loan, then both parties are subject to the below-market loan rules rather than the unstated interest rules. Tax ez Rules for the seller. Tax ez   If either section 1274 or section 483 applies to the installment sale contract, you must treat part of the installment sale price as interest, even though interest is not called for in the sales agreement. Tax ez If either section applies, you must reduce the stated selling price of the property and increase your interest income by this unstated interest. Tax ez   Include the unstated interest in income based on your regular method of accounting. Tax ez Include OID in income over the term of the contract. Tax ez   The OID includible in income each year is based on the constant yield method described in section 1272. Tax ez (In some cases, the OID on an installment sale contract also may include all or part of the stated interest, especially if the stated interest is not paid at least annually. Tax ez )   If you do not use the installment method to report the sale, report the entire gain under your method of accounting in the year of sale. Tax ez Reduce the selling price by any stated principal treated as interest to determine the gain. Tax ez   Report unstated interest or OID on your tax return, in addition to stated interest. Tax ez Rules for the buyer. Tax ez   Any part of the stated selling price of an installment sale contract treated by the buyer as interest reduces the buyer's basis in the property and increases the buyer's interest expense. Tax ez These rules do not apply to personal-use property (for example, property not used in a trade or business). Tax ez Adequate stated interest. Tax ez   An installment sale contract generally provides for adequate stated interest if the contract's stated principal amount is at least equal to the sum of the present values of all principal and interest payments called for under the contract. Tax ez The present value of a payment is determined based on the test rate of interest, defined next. Tax ez (If section 483 applies to the contract, payments due within six months after the sale are taken into account at face value. Tax ez ) In general, an installment sale contract provides for adequate stated interest if the stated interest rate (based on an appropriate compounding period) is at least equal to the test rate of interest. Tax ez Test rate of interest. Tax ez   The test rate of interest for a contract is the 3-month rate. Tax ez The 3-month rate is the lower of the following applicable federal rates (AFRs). Tax ez The lowest AFR (based on the appropriate compounding period) in effect during the 3-month period ending with the first month in which there is a binding written contract that substantially provides the terms under which the sale or exchange is ultimately completed. Tax ez The lowest AFR (based on the appropriate compounding period) in effect during the 3-month period ending with the month in which the sale or exchange occurs. Tax ez Applicable federal rate (AFR). Tax ez   The AFR depends on the month the binding