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H And R Block Free Edition

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H And R Block Free Edition

H and r block free edition Publication 15-T - Additional Material Table of Contents This image is too large to be displayed in the current screen. H and r block free edition Please click the link to view the image. H and r block free edition Form W-4 (2009) This image is too large to be displayed in the current screen. H and r block free edition Please click the link to view the image. H and r block free edition Deductions and Adjustments Worksheet Notice to Employees Please click here for the text description of the image. H and r block free edition Multi-Media/Back Page Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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Phishing Scams

“Phishing” is the use of fraudulent e-mail designed to steal identities as well as vital personal information such as credit card numbers, bank account PINs, and passwords. Phishing e-mails often ask you to verify this type of information.

Scammers also go “SMishing,” or phishing using text messages, by asking you to verify or confirm sensitive information. Legitimate companies never ask for your password or account number via e-mail. Protect yourself:

  • Call the company directly to determine if the email is trustworthy
  • Forward the email to the Federal Trade Commission at spam@uce.gov.
  • Do not reveal personal or financial information in emails
  • Contact the company directly. Do not use contact information provided on a web site connected to the request; instead, use contact information from account statements that you already have.
  • Don’t reply to the email, even if it threatens to disable your account.

Beware: Cash Top-Up Scams

Cash top-up cards can be a convenient way to transfer money to other accounts. They are not designed to be used directly with retailers or online merchants; rather they are used to reload money on accounts that you control, such as your debit card.
Unfortunately, scammers know the ease and convenience of using these cards. They persuade you to share your top-up card number directly with them instead of using a wire or escrow service. However, if you send the top-up number you’ll be left without the merchandise you were promised or your money. To protect yourself from these scams:

  • Guard your top-up card like it is cash.
  • Be wary of advertisements where you are asked to pay with a cash top-up card.
  • Don’t share your top-up card number with someone you don’t know, even if a merchant asks you to e-mail it to them.
  • Never use these cards to pay taxes or fees on lottery or sweepstakes winnings. It’s likely that you haven’t won anything.

Protect Your PIN

Beware of “shoulder surfers.” Be suspicious of anyone lurking around an ATM or watching over your shoulder while you use your card. Some thieves even put a device over the card slot of an ATM to read the magnetic strip and record your PIN; this is known as “skimming”. If you suspect criminal activity, walk away and use a different ATM.

The H And R Block Free Edition

H and r block free edition Publication 538 - Main Content Table of Contents Accounting PeriodsCalendar Year Fiscal Year Short Tax Year Improper Tax Year Change in Tax Year Individuals Partnerships, S Corporations, and Personal Service Corporations (PSCs) Corporations (Other Than S Corporations and PSCs) Accounting MethodsSpecial methods. H and r block free edition Hybrid method. H and r block free edition Cash Method Accrual Method Inventories Change in Accounting Method How To Get Tax HelpLow Income Taxpayer Clinics (LITCs). H and r block free edition Accounting Periods You must use a tax year to figure your taxable income. H and r block free edition A tax year is an annual accounting period for keeping records and reporting income and expenses. H and r block free edition An annual accounting period does not include a short tax year (discussed later). H and r block free edition You can use the following tax years: A calendar year; or A fiscal year (including a 52-53-week tax year). H and r block free edition Unless you have a required tax year, you adopt a tax year by filing your first income tax return using that tax year. H and r block free edition A required tax year is a tax year required under the Internal Revenue Code or the Income Tax Regulations. H and r block free edition You cannot adopt a tax year by merely: Filing an application for an extension of time to file an income tax return; Filing an application for an employer identification number (Form SS-4); or Paying estimated taxes. H and r block free edition This section discusses: A calendar year. H and r block free edition A fiscal year (including a period of 52 or 53 weeks). H and r block free edition A short tax year. H and r block free edition An improper tax year. H and r block free edition A change in tax year. H and r block free edition Special situations that apply to individuals. H and r block free edition Restrictions that apply to the accounting period of a partnership, S corporation, or personal service corporation. H and r block free edition Special situations that apply to corporations. H and r block free edition Calendar Year A calendar year is 12 consecutive months beginning on January 1st and ending on December 31st. H and r block free edition If you adopt the calendar year, you must maintain your books and records and report your income and expenses from January 1st through December 31st of each year. H and r block free edition If you file your first tax return using the calendar tax year and you later begin business as a sole proprietor, become a partner in a partnership, or become a shareholder in an S corporation, you must continue to use the calendar year unless you obtain approval from the IRS to change it, or are otherwise allowed to change it without IRS approval. H and r block free edition See Change in Tax Year, later. H and r block free edition Generally, anyone can adopt the calendar year. H and r block free edition However, you must adopt the calendar year if: You keep no books or records; You have no annual accounting period; Your present tax year does not qualify as a fiscal year; or You are required to use a calendar year by a provision in the Internal Revenue Code or the Income Tax Regulations. H and r block free edition Fiscal Year A fiscal year is 12 consecutive months ending on the last day of any month except December 31st. H and r block free edition If you are allowed to adopt a fiscal year, you must consistently maintain your books and records and report your income and expenses using the time period adopted. H and r block free edition 52-53-Week Tax Year You can elect to use a 52-53-week tax year if you keep your books and records and report your income and expenses on that basis. H and r block free edition If you make this election, your 52-53-week tax year must always end on the same day of the week. H and r block free edition Your 52-53-week tax year must always end on: Whatever date this same day of the week last occurs in a calendar month, or Whatever date this same day of the week falls that is nearest to the last day of the calendar month. H and r block free edition For example, if you elect a tax year that always ends on the last Monday in March, your 2012 tax year will end on March 25, 2013. H and r block free edition Election. H and r block free edition   To make the election for the 52-53-week tax year, attach a statement with the following information to your tax return. H and r block free edition The month in which the new 52-53-week tax year ends. H and r block free edition The day of the week on which the tax year always ends. H and r block free edition The date the tax year ends. H and r block free edition It can be either of the following dates on which the chosen day: Last occurs in the month in (1), above, or Occurs nearest to the last day of the month in (1), above. H and r block free edition   When you figure depreciation or amortization, a 52-53-week tax year is generally considered a year of 12 calendar months. H and r block free edition   To determine an effective date (or apply provisions of any law) expressed in terms of tax years beginning, including, or ending on the first or last day of a specified calendar month, a 52-53-week tax year is considered to: Begin on the first day of the calendar month beginning nearest to the first day of the 52-53-week tax year, and End on the last day of the calendar month ending nearest to the last day of the 52-53-week tax year. H and r block free edition Example. H and r block free edition Assume a tax provision applies to tax years beginning on or after July 1, 2012, which happens to be a Sunday. H and r block free edition For this purpose, a 52-53-week tax year that begins on the last Tuesday of June, which falls on June 26, 2012, is treated as beginning on July 1, 2012. H and r block free edition Short Tax Year A short tax year is a tax year of less than 12 months. H and r block free edition A short period tax return may be required when you (as a taxable entity): Are not in existence for an entire tax year, or Change your accounting period. H and r block free edition Tax on a short period tax return is figured differently for each situation. H and r block free edition Not in Existence Entire Year Even if a taxable entity was not in existence for the entire year, a tax return is required for the time it was in existence. H and r block free edition Requirements for filing the return and figuring the tax are generally the same as the requirements for a return for a full tax year (12 months) ending on the last day of the short tax year. H and r block free edition Example 1. H and r block free edition XYZ Corporation was organized on July 1, 2012. H and r block free edition It elected the calendar year as its tax year. H and r block free edition Therefore, its first tax return was due March 15, 2013. H and r block free edition This short period return will cover the period from July 1, 2012, through December 31, 2012. H and r block free edition Example 2. H and r block free edition A calendar year corporation dissolved on July 23, 2012. H and r block free edition Its final return is due by October 15, 2012. H and r block free edition It will cover the short period from January 1, 2012, through July 23, 2012. H and r block free edition Death of individual. H and r block free edition   When an individual dies, a tax return must be filed for the decedent by the 15th day of the 4th month after the close of the individual's regular tax year. H and r block free edition The decedent's final return will be a short period tax return that begins on January 1st, and ends on the date of death. H and r block free edition In the case of a decedent who dies on December 31st, the last day of the regular tax year, a full calendar-year tax return is required. H and r block free edition Example. H and r block free edition   Agnes Green was a single, calendar year taxpayer. H and r block free edition She died on March 6, 2012. H and r block free edition Her final income tax return must be filed by April 15, 2013. H and r block free edition It will cover the short period from January 1, 2012, to March 6, 2012. H and r block free edition Figuring Tax for Short Year If the IRS approves a change in your tax year or you are required to change your tax year, you must figure the tax and file your return for the short tax period. H and r block free edition The short tax period begins on the first day after the close of your old tax year and ends on the day before the first day of your new tax year. H and r block free edition Figure tax for a short year under the general rule, explained below. H and r block free edition You may then be able to use a relief procedure, explained later, and claim a refund of part of the tax you paid. H and r block free edition General rule. H and r block free edition   Income tax for a short tax year must be annualized. H and r block free edition However, self-employment tax is figured on the actual self-employment income for the short period. H and r block free edition Individuals. H and r block free edition   An individual must figure income tax for the short tax year as follows. H and r block free edition Determine your adjusted gross income (AGI) for the short tax year and then subtract your actual itemized deductions for the short tax year. H and r block free edition You must itemize deductions when you file a short period tax return. H and r block free edition Multiply the dollar amount of your exemptions by the number of months in the short tax year and divide the result by 12. H and r block free edition Subtract the amount in (2) from the amount in (1). H and r block free edition The result is your modified taxable income. H and r block free edition Multiply the modified taxable income in (3) by 12, then divide the result by the number of months in the short tax year. H and r block free edition The result is your annualized income. H and r block free edition Figure the total tax on your annualized income using the appropriate tax rate schedule. H and r block free edition Multiply the total tax by the number of months in the short tax year and divide the result by 12. H and r block free edition The result is your tax for the short tax year. H and r block free edition Relief procedure. H and r block free edition   Individuals and corporations can use a relief procedure to figure the tax for the short tax year. H and r block free edition It may result in less tax. H and r block free edition Under this procedure, the tax is figured by two separate methods. H and r block free edition If the tax figured under both methods is less than the tax figured under the general rule, you can file a claim for a refund of part of the tax you paid. H and r block free edition For more information, see section 443(b)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code. H and r block free edition Alternative minimum tax. H and r block free edition   To figure the alternative minimum tax (AMT) due for a short tax year: Figure the annualized alternative minimum taxable income (AMTI) for the short tax period by completing the following steps. H and r block free edition Multiply the AMTI by 12. H and r block free edition Divide the result by the number of months in the short tax year. H and r block free edition Multiply the annualized AMTI by the appropriate rate of tax under section 55(b)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code. H and r block free edition The result is the annualized AMT. H and r block free edition Multiply the annualized AMT by the number of months in the short tax year and divide the result by 12. H and r block free edition   For information on the AMT for individuals, see the Instructions for Form 6251, Alternative Minimum Tax–Individuals. H and r block free edition For information on the AMT for corporations, see the Instructions to Form 4626, Alternative Minimum Tax–Corporations. H and r block free edition Tax withheld from wages. H and r block free edition   You can claim a credit against your income tax liability for federal income tax withheld from your wages. H and r block free edition Federal income tax is withheld on a calendar year basis. H and r block free edition The amount withheld in any calendar year is allowed as a credit for the tax year beginning in the calendar year. H and r block free edition Improper Tax Year Taxpayers that have adopted an improper tax year must change to a proper tax year. H and r block free edition For example, if a taxpayer began business on March 15 and adopted a tax year ending on March 14 (a period of exactly 12 months), this would be an improper tax year. H and r block free edition See Accounting Periods, earlier, for a description of permissible tax years. H and r block free edition To change to a proper tax year, you must do one of the following. H and r block free edition If you are requesting a change to a calendar tax year, file an amended income tax return based on a calendar tax year that corrects the most recently filed tax return that was filed on the basis of an improper tax year. H and r block free edition Attach a completed Form 1128 to the amended tax return. H and r block free edition Write “FILED UNDER REV. H and r block free edition PROC. H and r block free edition 85-15” at the top of Form 1128 and file the forms with the Internal Revenue Service Center where you filed your original return. H and r block free edition If you are requesting a change to a fiscal tax year, file Form 1128 in accordance with the form instructions to request IRS approval for the change. H and r block free edition Change in Tax Year Generally, you must file Form 1128 to request IRS approval to change your tax year. H and r block free edition See the Instructions for Form 1128 for exceptions. H and r block free edition If you qualify for an automatic approval request, a user fee is not required. H and r block free edition Individuals Generally, individuals must adopt the calendar year as their tax year. H and r block free edition An individual can adopt a fiscal year provided that the individual maintains his or her books and records on the basis of the adopted fiscal year. H and r block free edition Partnerships, S Corporations, and Personal Service Corporations (PSCs) Generally, partnerships, S corporations (including electing S corporations), and PSCs must use a required tax year. H and r block free edition A required tax year is a tax year that is required under the Internal Revenue Code and Income Tax Regulations. H and r block free edition The entity does not have to use the required tax year if it receives IRS approval to use another permitted tax year or makes an election under section 444 of the Internal Revenue Code (discussed later). H and r block free edition The following discussions provide the rules for partnerships, S corporations, and PSCs. H and r block free edition Partnership A partnership must conform its tax year to its partners' tax years unless any of the following apply. H and r block free edition The partnership makes an election under section 444 of the Internal Revenue Code to have a tax year other than a required tax year by filing Form 8716. H and r block free edition The partnership elects to use a 52-53-week tax year that ends with reference to either its required tax year or a tax year elected under section 444. H and r block free edition The partnership can establish a business purpose for a different tax year. H and r block free edition The rules for the required tax year for partnerships are as follows. H and r block free edition If one or more partners having the same tax year own a majority interest (more than 50%) in partnership profits and capital, the partnership must use the tax year of those partners. H and r block free edition If there is no majority interest tax year, the partnership must use the tax year of all its principal partners. H and r block free edition A principal partner is one who has a 5% or more interest in the profits or capital of the partnership. H and r block free edition If there is no majority interest tax year and the principal partners do not have the same tax year, the partnership generally must use a tax year that results in the least aggregate deferral of income to the partners. H and r block free edition If a partnership changes to a required tax year because of these rules, it can get automatic approval by filing Form 1128. H and r block free edition Least aggregate deferral of income. H and r block free edition   The tax year that results in the least aggregate deferral of income is determined as follows. H and r block free edition Figure the number of months of deferral for each partner using one partner's tax year. H and r block free edition Find the months of deferral by counting the months from the end of that tax year forward to the end of each other partner's tax year. H and r block free edition Multiply each partner's months of deferral figured in step (1) by that partner's share of interest in the partnership profits for the year used in step (1). H and r block free edition Add the amounts in step (2) to get the aggregate (total) deferral for the tax year used in step (1). H and r block free edition Repeat steps (1) through (3) for each partner's tax year that is different from the other partners' years. H and r block free edition   The partner's tax year that results in the lowest aggregate (total) number is the tax year that must be used by the partnership. H and r block free edition If the calculation results in more than one tax year qualifying as the tax year with the least aggregate deferral, the partnership can choose any one of those tax years as its tax year. H and r block free edition However, if one of the tax years that qualifies is the partnership's existing tax year, the partnership must retain that tax year. H and r block free edition Example. H and r block free edition A and B each have a 50% interest in partnership P, which uses a fiscal year ending June 30. H and r block free edition A uses the calendar year and B uses a fiscal year ending November 30. H and r block free edition P must change its tax year to a fiscal year ending November 30 because this results in the least aggregate deferral of income to the partners, as shown in the following table. H and r block free edition Year End 12/31: Year End Profits Interest Months of Deferral Interest × Deferral A 12/31 0. H and r block free edition 5 -0- -0- B 11/30 0. H and r block free edition 5 11 5. H and r block free edition 5 Total Deferral 5. H and r block free edition 5 Year End 11/30: Year End Profits Interest Months of Deferral Interest × Deferral A 12/31 0. H and r block free edition 5 1 0. H and r block free edition 5 B 11/30 0. H and r block free edition 5 -0- -0- Total Deferral 0. H and r block free edition 5 When determination is made. H and r block free edition   The determination of the tax year under the least aggregate deferral rules must generally be made at the beginning of the partnership's current tax year. H and r block free edition However, the IRS can require the partnership to use another day or period that will more accurately reflect the ownership of the partnership. H and r block free edition This could occur, for example, if a partnership interest was transferred for the purpose of qualifying for a particular tax year. H and r block free edition Short period return. H and r block free edition   When a partnership changes its tax year, a short period return must be filed. H and r block free edition The short period return covers the months between the end of the partnership's prior tax year and the beginning of its new tax year. H and r block free edition   If a partnership changes to the tax year resulting in the least aggregate deferral, it must file a Form 1128 with the short period return showing the computations used to determine that tax year. H and r block free edition The short period return must indicate at the top of page 1, “FILED UNDER SECTION 1. H and r block free edition 706-1. H and r block free edition ” More information. H and r block free edition   For more information about changing a partnership's tax year, and information about ruling requests, see the Instructions for Form 1128. H and r block free edition S Corporation All S corporations, regardless of when they became an S corporation, must use a permitted tax year. H and r block free edition A permitted tax year is any of the following. H and r block free edition The calendar year. H and r block free edition A tax year elected under section 444 of the Internal Revenue Code. H and r block free edition See Section 444 Election, below for details. H and r block free edition A 52-53-week tax year ending with reference to the calendar year or a tax year elected under section 444. H and r block free edition Any other tax year for which the corporation establishes a business purpose. H and r block free edition If an electing S corporation wishes to adopt a tax year other than a calendar year, it must request IRS approval using Form 2553, instead of filing Form 1128. H and r block free edition For information about changing an S corporation's tax year and information about ruling requests, see the Instructions for Form 1128. H and r block free edition Personal Service Corporation (PSC) A PSC must use a calendar tax year unless any of the following apply. H and r block free edition The corporation makes an election under section 444 of the Internal Revenue Code. H and r block free edition See Section 444 Election, below for details. H and r block free edition The corporation elects to use a 52-53-week tax year ending with reference to the calendar year or a tax year elected under section 444. H and r block free edition The corporation establishes a business purpose for a fiscal year. H and r block free edition See the Instructions for Form 1120 for general information about PSCs. H and r block free edition For information on adopting or changing tax years for PSCs and information about ruling requests, see the Instructions for Form 1128. H and r block free edition Section 444 Election A partnership, S corporation, electing S corporation, or PSC can elect under section 444 of the Internal Revenue Code to use a tax year other than its required tax year. H and r block free edition Certain restrictions apply to the election. H and r block free edition A partnership or an S corporation that makes a section 444 election must make certain required payments and a PSC must make certain distributions (discussed later). H and r block free edition The section 444 election does not apply to any partnership, S corporation, or PSC that establishes a business purpose for a different period, explained later. H and r block free edition A partnership, S corporation, or PSC can make a section 444 election if it meets all the following requirements. H and r block free edition It is not a member of a tiered structure (defined in section 1. H and r block free edition 444-2T of the regulations). H and r block free edition It has not previously had a section 444 election in effect. H and r block free edition It elects a year that meets the deferral period requirement. H and r block free edition Deferral period. H and r block free edition   The determination of the deferral period depends on whether the partnership, S corporation, or PSC is retaining its tax year or adopting or changing its tax year with a section 444 election. H and r block free edition Retaining tax year. H and r block free edition   Generally, a partnership, S corporation, or PSC can make a section 444 election to retain its tax year only if the deferral period of the new tax year is 3 months or less. H and r block free edition This deferral period is the number of months between the beginning of the retained year and the close of the first required tax year. H and r block free edition Adopting or changing tax year. H and r block free edition   If the partnership, S corporation, or PSC is adopting or changing to a tax year other than its required year, the deferral period is the number of months from the end of the new tax year to the end of the required tax year. H and r block free edition The IRS will allow a section 444 election only if the deferral period of the new tax year is less than the shorter of: Three months, or The deferral period of the tax year being changed. H and r block free edition This is the tax year immediately preceding the year for which the partnership, S corporation, or PSC wishes to make the section 444 election. H and r block free edition If the partnership, S corporation, or PSC's tax year is the same as its required tax year, the deferral period is zero. H and r block free edition Example 1. H and r block free edition BD Partnership uses a calendar year, which is also its required tax year. H and r block free edition BD cannot make a section 444 election because the deferral period is zero. H and r block free edition Example 2. H and r block free edition E, a newly formed partnership, began operations on December 1. H and r block free edition E is owned by calendar year partners. H and r block free edition E wants to make a section 444 election to adopt a September 30 tax year. H and r block free edition E's deferral period for the tax year beginning December 1 is 3 months, the number of months between September 30 and December 31. H and r block free edition Making the election. H and r block free edition   Make a section 444 election by filing Form 8716 with the Internal Revenue Service Center where the entity will file its tax return. H and r block free edition Form 8716 must be filed by the earlier of: The due date (not including extensions) of the income tax return for the tax year resulting from the section 444 election, or The 15th day of the 6th month of the tax year for which the election will be effective. H and r block free edition For this purpose, count the month in which the tax year begins, even if it begins after the first day of that month. H and r block free edition Note. H and r block free edition If the due date falls on a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday, file on the next business day. H and r block free edition   Attach a copy of Form 8716 to Form 1065, Form 1120S, or Form 1120 for the first tax year for which the election is made. H and r block free edition Example 1. H and r block free edition AB, a partnership, begins operations on September 13, 2012, and is qualified to make a section 444 election to use a September 30 tax year for its tax year beginning September 13, 2012. H and r block free edition AB must file Form 8716 by January 15, 2013, which is the due date of the partnership's tax return for the period from September 13, 2012, to September 30, 2012. H and r block free edition Example 2. H and r block free edition The facts are the same as in Example 1 except that AB begins operations on October 21, 2012. H and r block free edition AB must file Form 8716 by March 17, 2013. H and r block free edition Example 3. H and r block free edition B is a corporation that first becomes a PSC for its tax year beginning September 1, 2012. H and r block free edition B qualifies to make a section 444 election to use a September 30 tax year for its tax year beginning September 1, 2012. H and r block free edition B must file Form 8716 by December 17, 2012, the due date of the income tax return for the short period from September 1, 2012, to September 30, 2012. H and r block free edition Note. H and r block free edition The due dates in Examples 2 and 3 are adjusted because the dates fall on a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday. H and r block free edition Extension of time for filing. H and r block free edition   There is an automatic extension of 12 months to make this election. H and r block free edition See the Form 8716 instructions for more information. H and r block free edition Terminating the election. H and r block free edition   The section 444 election remains in effect until it is terminated. H and r block free edition If the election is terminated, another section 444 election cannot be made for any tax year. H and r block free edition   The election ends when any of the following applies to the partnership, S corporation, or PSC. H and r block free edition The entity changes to its required tax year. H and r block free edition The entity liquidates. H and r block free edition The entity becomes a member of a tiered structure. H and r block free edition The IRS determines that the entity willfully failed to comply with the required payments or distributions. H and r block free edition   The election will also end if either of the following events occur. H and r block free edition An S corporation's S election is terminated. H and r block free edition However, if the S corporation immediately becomes a PSC, the PSC can continue the section 444 election of the S corporation. H and r block free edition A PSC ceases to be a PSC. H and r block free edition If the PSC elects to be an S corporation, the S corporation can continue the election of the PSC. H and r block free edition Required payment for partnership or S corporation. H and r block free edition   A partnership or an S corporation must make a required payment for any tax year: The section 444 election is in effect. H and r block free edition The required payment for that year (or any preceding tax year) is more than $500. H and r block free edition    This payment represents the value of the tax deferral the owners receive by using a tax year different from the required tax year. H and r block free edition   Form 8752, Required Payment or Refund Under Section 7519, must be filed each year the section 444 election is in effect, even if no payment is due. H and r block free edition If the required payment is more than $500 (or the required payment for any prior year was more than $500), the payment must be made when Form 8752 is filed. H and r block free edition If the required payment is $500 or less and no payment was required in a prior year, Form 8752 must be filed showing a zero amount. H and r block free edition Applicable election year. H and r block free edition   Any tax year a section 444 election is in effect, including the first year, is called an applicable election year. H and r block free edition Form 8752 must be filed and the required payment made (or zero amount reported) by May 15th of the calendar year following the calendar year in which the applicable election year begins. H and r block free edition Required distribution for PSC. H and r block free edition   A PSC with a section 444 election in effect must distribute certain amounts to employee-owners by December 31 of each applicable year. H and r block free edition If it fails to make these distributions, it may be required to defer certain deductions for amounts paid to owner-employees. H and r block free edition The amount deferred is treated as paid or incurred in the following tax year. H and r block free edition   For information on the minimum distribution, see the instructions for Part I of Schedule H (Form 1120), Section 280H Limitations for a Personal Service Corporation (PSC). H and r block free edition Back-up election. H and r block free edition   A partnership, S corporation, or PSC can file a back-up section 444 election if it requests (or plans to request) permission to use a business purpose tax year, discussed later. H and r block free edition If the request is denied, the back-up section 444 election must be activated (if the partnership, S corporation, or PSC otherwise qualifies). H and r block free edition Making back-up election. H and r block free edition   The general rules for making a section 444 election, as discussed earlier, apply. H and r block free edition When filing Form 8716, type or print “BACK-UP ELECTION” at the top of the form. H and r block free edition However, if Form 8716 is filed on or after the date Form 1128 (or Form 2553) is filed, type or print “FORM 1128 (or FORM 2553) BACK-UP ELECTION” at the top of Form 8716. H and r block free edition Activating election. H and r block free edition   A partnership or S corporation activates its back-up election by filing the return required and making the required payment with Form 8752. H and r block free edition The due date for filing Form 8752 and making the payment is the later of the following dates. H and r block free edition May 15 of the calendar year following the calendar year in which the applicable election year begins. H and r block free edition 60 days after the partnership or S corporation has been notified by the IRS that the business year request has been denied. H and r block free edition   A PSC activates its back-up election by filing Form 8716 with its original or amended income tax return for the tax year in which the election is first effective and printing on the top of the income tax return, “ACTIVATING BACK-UP ELECTION. H and r block free edition ” 52-53-Week Tax Year A partnership, S corporation, or PSC can use a tax year other than its required tax year if it elects a 52-53-week tax year (discussed earlier) that ends with reference to either its required tax year or a tax year elected under section 444 (discussed earlier). H and r block free edition A newly formed partnership, S corporation, or PSC can adopt a 52-53-week tax year ending with reference to either its required tax year or a tax year elected under section 444 without IRS approval. H and r block free edition However, if the entity wishes to change to a 52-53-week tax year or change from a 52-53-week tax year that references a particular month to a non-52-53-week tax year that ends on the last day of that month, it must request IRS approval by filing Form 1128. H and r block free edition Business Purpose Tax Year A partnership, S corporation, or PSC establishes the business purpose for a tax year by filing Form 1128. H and r block free edition See the Instructions for Form 1128 for details. H and r block free edition Corporations (Other Than S Corporations and PSCs) A new corporation establishes its tax year when it files its first tax return. H and r block free edition A newly reactivated corporation that has been inactive for a number of years is treated as a new taxpayer for the purpose of adopting a tax year. H and r block free edition An S corporation or a PSC must use the required tax year rules, discussed earlier, to establish a tax year. H and r block free edition Generally, a corporation that wants to change its tax year must obtain approval from the IRS under either the: (a) automatic approval procedures; or (b) ruling request procedures. H and r block free edition See the Instructions for Form 1128 for details. H and r block free edition Accounting Methods An accounting method is a set of rules used to determine when income and expenses are reported on your tax return. H and r block free edition Your accounting method includes not only your overall method of accounting, but also the accounting treatment you use for any material item. H and r block free edition You choose an accounting method when you file your first tax return. H and r block free edition If you later want to change your accounting method, you must get IRS approval. H and r block free edition See Change in Accounting Method, later. H and r block free edition No single accounting method is required of all taxpayers. H and r block free edition You must use a system that clearly reflects your income and expenses and you must maintain records that will enable you to file a correct return. H and r block free edition In addition to your permanent accounting books, you must keep any other records necessary to support the entries on your books and tax returns. H and r block free edition You must use the same accounting method from year to year. H and r block free edition An accounting method clearly reflects income only if all items of gross income and expenses are treated the same from year to year. H and r block free edition If you do not regularly use an accounting method that clearly reflects your income, your income will be refigured under the method that, in the opinion of the IRS, does clearly reflect income. H and r block free edition Methods you can use. H and r block free edition   In general, you can compute your taxable income under any of the following accounting methods. H and r block free edition Cash method. H and r block free edition Accrual method. H and r block free edition Special methods of accounting for certain items of income and expenses. H and r block free edition A hybrid method which combines elements of two or more of the above accounting methods. H and r block free edition The cash and accrual methods of accounting are explained later. H and r block free edition Special methods. H and r block free edition   This publication does not discuss special methods of accounting for certain items of income or expenses. H and r block free edition For information on reporting income using one of the long-term contract methods, see section 460 of the Internal Revenue Code and the related regulations. H and r block free edition The following publications also discuss special methods of reporting income or expenses. H and r block free edition Publication 225, Farmer's Tax Guide. H and r block free edition Publication 535, Business Expenses. H and r block free edition Publication 537, Installment Sales. H and r block free edition Publication 946, How To Depreciate Property. H and r block free edition Hybrid method. H and r block free edition   Generally, you can use any combination of cash, accrual, and special methods of accounting if the combination clearly reflects your income and you use it consistently. H and r block free edition However, the following restrictions apply. H and r block free edition If an inventory is necessary to account for your income, you must use an accrual method for purchases and sales. H and r block free edition See Exceptions under Inventories, later. H and r block free edition Generally, you can use the cash method for all other items of income and expenses. H and r block free edition See Inventories, later. H and r block free edition If you use the cash method for reporting your income, you must use the cash method for reporting your expenses. H and r block free edition If you use an accrual method for reporting your expenses, you must use an accrual method for figuring your income. H and r block free edition Any combination that includes the cash method is treated as the cash method for purposes of section 448 of the Internal Revenue Code. H and r block free edition Business and personal items. H and r block free edition   You can account for business and personal items using different accounting methods. H and r block free edition For example, you can determine your business income and expenses under an accrual method, even if you use the cash method to figure personal items. H and r block free edition Two or more businesses. H and r block free edition   If you operate two or more separate and distinct businesses, you can use a different accounting method for each business. H and r block free edition No business is separate and distinct, unless a complete and separate set of books and records is maintained for each business. H and r block free edition Note. H and r block free edition If you use different accounting methods to create or shift profits or losses between businesses (for example, through inventory adjustments, sales, purchases, or expenses) so that income is not clearly reflected, the businesses will not be considered separate and distinct. H and r block free edition Cash Method Most individuals and many small businesses use the cash method of accounting. H and r block free edition Generally, if you produce, purchase, or sell merchandise, you must keep an inventory and use an accrual method for sales and purchases of merchandise. H and r block free edition See Inventories, later, for exceptions to this rule. H and r block free edition Income Under the cash method, you include in your gross income all items of income you actually or constructively receive during the tax year. H and r block free edition If you receive property and services, you must include their fair market value (FMV) in income. H and r block free edition Constructive receipt. H and r block free edition   Income is constructively received when an amount is credited to your account or made available to you without restriction. H and r block free edition You need not have possession of it. H and r block free edition If you authorize someone to be your agent and receive income for you, you are considered to have received it when your agent receives it. H and r block free edition Income is not constructively received if your control of its receipt is subject to substantial restrictions or limitations. H and r block free edition Example. H and r block free edition You are a calendar year taxpayer. H and r block free edition Your bank credited, and made available, interest to your bank account in December 2012. H and r block free edition You did not withdraw it or enter it into your books until 2013. H and r block free edition You must include the amount in gross income for 2012, the year you constructively received it. H and r block free edition You cannot hold checks or postpone taking possession of similar property from one tax year to another to postpone paying tax on the income. H and r block free edition You must report the income in the year the property is received or made available to you without restriction. H and r block free edition Expenses Under the cash method, generally, you deduct expenses in the tax year in which you actually pay them. H and r block free edition This includes business expenses for which you contest liability. H and r block free edition However, you may not be able to deduct an expense paid in advance. H and r block free edition Instead, you may be required to capitalize certain costs, as explained later under Uniform Capitalization Rules. H and r block free edition Expense paid in advance. H and r block free edition   An expense you pay in advance is deductible only in the year to which it applies, unless the expense qualifies for the 12-month rule. H and r block free edition   Under the 12-month rule, a taxpayer is not required to capitalize amounts paid to create certain rights or benefits for the taxpayer that do not extend beyond the earlier of the following. H and r block free edition 12 months after the right or benefit begins, or The end of the tax year after the tax year in which payment is made. H and r block free edition   If you have not been applying the general rule (an expense paid in advance is deductible only in the year to which it applies) and/or the 12-month rule to the expenses you paid in advance, you must obtain approval from the IRS before using the general rule and/or the 12-month rule. H and r block free edition See Change in Accounting Method, later. H and r block free edition Example 1. H and r block free edition You are a calendar year taxpayer and pay $3,000 in 2012 for a business insurance policy that is effective for three years (36 months), beginning on July 1, 2012. H and r block free edition The general rule that an expense paid in advance is deductible only in the year to which it applies is applicable to this payment because the payment does not qualify for the 12-month rule. H and r block free edition Therefore, only $500 (6/36 x $3,000) is deductible in 2012, $1,000 (12/36 x $3,000) is deductible in 2013, $1,000 (12/36 x $3,000) is deductible in 2014, and the remaining $500 is deductible in 2015. H and r block free edition Example 2. H and r block free edition You are a calendar year taxpayer and pay $10,000 on July 1, 2012, for a business insurance policy that is effective for only one year beginning on July 1, 2012. H and r block free edition The 12-month rule applies. H and r block free edition Therefore, the full $10,000 is deductible in 2012. H and r block free edition Excluded Entities The following entities cannot use the cash method, including any combination of methods that includes the cash method. H and r block free edition (See Special rules for farming businesses, later. H and r block free edition ) A corporation (other than an S corporation) with average annual gross receipts exceeding $5 million. H and r block free edition See Gross receipts test, below. H and r block free edition A partnership with a corporation (other than an S corporation) as a partner, and with the partnership having average annual gross receipts exceeding $5 million. H and r block free edition See Gross receipts test, below. H and r block free edition A tax shelter. H and r block free edition Exceptions The following entities are not prohibited from using the cash method of accounting. H and r block free edition Any corporation or partnership, other than a tax shelter, that meets the gross receipts test for all tax years after 1985. H and r block free edition A qualified personal service corporation (PSC). H and r block free edition Gross receipts test. H and r block free edition   A corporation or partnership, other than a tax shelter, that meets the gross receipts test can generally use the cash method. H and r block free edition A corporation or a partnership meets the test if, for each prior tax year beginning after 1985, its average annual gross receipts are $5 million or less. H and r block free edition    An entity's average annual gross receipts for a prior tax year is determined by: Adding the gross receipts for that tax year and the 2 preceding tax years; and Dividing the total by 3. H and r block free edition See Gross receipts test for qualifying taxpayers, for more information. H and r block free edition Generally, a partnership applies the test at the partnership level. H and r block free edition Gross receipts for a short tax year are annualized. H and r block free edition Aggregation rules. H and r block free edition   Organizations that are members of an affiliated service group or a controlled group of corporations treated as a single employer for tax purposes are required to aggregate their gross receipts to determine whether the gross receipts test is met. H and r block free edition Change to accrual method. H and r block free edition   A corporation or partnership that fails to meet the gross receipts test for any tax year is prohibited from using the cash method and must change to an accrual method of accounting, effective for the tax year in which the entity fails to meet this test. H and r block free edition Special rules for farming businesses. H and r block free edition   Generally, a taxpayer engaged in the trade or business of farming is allowed to use the cash method for its farming business. H and r block free edition However, certain corporations (other than S corporations) and partnerships that have a partner that is a corporation must use an accrual method for their farming business. H and r block free edition For this purpose, farming does not include the operation of a nursery or sod farm or the raising or harvesting of trees (other than fruit and nut trees). H and r block free edition   There is an exception to the requirement to use an accrual method for corporations with gross receipts of $1 million or less for each prior tax year after 1975. H and r block free edition For family corporations engaged in farming, the exception applies if gross receipts were $25 million or less for each prior tax year after 1985. H and r block free edition See chapter 2 of Publication 225, Farmer's Tax Guide, for more information. H and r block free edition Qualified PSC. H and r block free edition   A PSC that meets the following function and ownership tests can use the cash method. H and r block free edition Function test. H and r block free edition   A corporation meets the function test if at least 95% of its activities are in the performance of services in the fields of health, veterinary services, law, engineering (including surveying and mapping), architecture, accounting, actuarial science, performing arts, or consulting. H and r block free edition Ownership test. H and r block free edition   A corporation meets the ownership test if at least 95% of its stock is owned, directly or indirectly, at all times during the year by one or more of the following. H and r block free edition Employees performing services for the corporation in a field qualifying under the function test. H and r block free edition Retired employees who had performed services in those fields. H and r block free edition The estate of an employee described in (1) or (2). H and r block free edition Any other person who acquired the stock by reason of the death of an employee referred to in (1) or (2), but only for the 2-year period beginning on the date of death. H and r block free edition   Indirect ownership is generally taken into account if the stock is owned indirectly through one or more partnerships, S corporations, or qualified PSCs. H and r block free edition Stock owned by one of these entities is considered owned by the entity's owners in proportion to their ownership interest in that entity. H and r block free edition Other forms of indirect stock ownership, such as stock owned by family members, are generally not considered when determining if the ownership test is met. H and r block free edition   For purposes of the ownership test, a person is not considered an employee of a corporation unless that person performs more than minimal services for the corporation. H and r block free edition Change to accrual method. H and r block free edition   A corporation that fails to meet the function test for any tax year; or fails to meet the ownership test at any time during any tax year must change to an accrual method of accounting, effective for the year in which the corporation fails to meet either test. H and r block free edition A corporation that fails to meet the function test or the ownership test is not treated as a qualified PSC for any part of that tax year. H and r block free edition Accrual Method Under the accrual method of accounting, generally you report income in the year it is earned and deduct or capitalize expenses in the year incurred. H and r block free edition The purpose of an accrual method of accounting is to match income and expenses in the correct year. H and r block free edition Income Generally, you include an amount in gross income for the tax year in which all events that fix your right to receive the income have occurred and you can determine the amount with reasonable accuracy. H and r block free edition Under this rule, you report an amount in your gross income on the earliest of the following dates. H and r block free edition When you receive payment. H and r block free edition When the income amount is due to you. H and r block free edition When you earn the income. H and r block free edition When title has passed. H and r block free edition Estimated income. H and r block free edition   If you include a reasonably estimated amount in gross income and later determine the exact amount is different, take the difference into account in the tax year you make that determination. H and r block free edition Change in payment schedule. H and r block free edition   If you perform services for a basic rate specified in a contract, you must accrue the income at the basic rate, even if you agree to receive payments at a reduced rate. H and r block free edition Continue this procedure until you complete the services, then account for the difference. H and r block free edition Advance Payment for Services Generally, you report an advance payment for services to be performed in a later tax year as income in the year you receive the payment. H and r block free edition However, if you receive an advance payment for services you agree to perform by the end of the next tax year, you can elect to postpone including the advance payment in income until the next tax year. H and r block free edition However, you cannot postpone including any payment beyond that tax year. H and r block free edition Service agreement. H and r block free edition   You can postpone reporting income from an advance payment you receive for a service agreement on property you sell, lease, build, install, or construct. H and r block free edition This includes an agreement providing for incidental replacement of parts or materials. H and r block free edition However, this applies only if you offer the property without a service agreement in the normal course of business. H and r block free edition Postponement not allowed. H and r block free edition   Generally, one cannot postpone including an advance payment in income for services if either of the following applies. H and r block free edition You are to perform any part of the service after the end of the tax year immediately following the year you receive the advance payment. H and r block free edition You are to perform any part of the service at any unspecified future date that may be after the end of the tax year immediately following the year you receive the advance payment. H and r block free edition Examples. H and r block free edition   In each of the following examples, assume the tax year is a calendar year and that the accrual method of accounting is used. H and r block free edition Example 1. H and r block free edition You manufacture, sell, and service computers. H and r block free edition You received payment in 2012 for a one-year contingent service contract on a computer you sold. H and r block free edition You can postpone including in income the part of the payment you did not earn in 2012 if, in the normal course of your business, you offer computers for sale without a contingent service contract. H and r block free edition Example 2. H and r block free edition You are in the television repair business. H and r block free edition You received payments in 2012 for one-year contracts under which you agree to repair or replace certain parts that fail to function properly in television sets manufactured and sold by unrelated parties. H and r block free edition You include the payments in gross income as you earn them. H and r block free edition Example 3. H and r block free edition You own a dance studio. H and r block free edition On October 1, 2012, you receive payment for a one-year contract for 48 one-hour lessons beginning on that date. H and r block free edition You give eight lessons in 2012. H and r block free edition Under this method of including advance payments, you must include one-sixth (8/48) of the payment in income for 2012, and five-sixths (40/48) of the payment in 2013, even if you do not give all the lessons by the end of 2013. H and r block free edition Example 4. H and r block free edition Assume the same facts as in Example 3, except the payment is for a two-year contract for 96 lessons. H and r block free edition You must include the entire payment in income in 2012 since part of the services may be performed after the following year. H and r block free edition Guarantee or warranty. H and r block free edition   Generally, you cannot postpone reporting income you receive under a guarantee or warranty contract. H and r block free edition Prepaid rent. H and r block free edition   You cannot postpone reporting income from prepaid rent. H and r block free edition Prepaid rent does not include payment for the use of a room or other space when significant service is also provided for the occupant. H and r block free edition You provide significant service when you supply space in a hotel, boarding house, tourist home, motor court, motel, or apartment house that furnishes hotel services. H and r block free edition Books and records. H and r block free edition   Any advance payment you include in gross receipts on your tax return for the year you receive payment must not be less than the payment you include in income for financial reports under the method of accounting used for those reports. H and r block free edition Financial reports include reports to shareholders, partners, beneficiaries, and other proprietors for credit purposes and consolidated financial statements. H and r block free edition IRS approval. H and r block free edition   You must file Form 3115 to obtain IRS approval to change your method of accounting for advance payment for services. H and r block free edition Advance Payment for Sales Special rules apply to including income from advance payments on agreements for future sales or other dispositions of goods held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of your trade or business. H and r block free edition However, the rules do not apply to a payment (or part of a payment) for services that are not an integral part of the main activities covered under the agreement. H and r block free edition An agreement includes a gift certificate that can be redeemed for goods. H and r block free edition Amounts due and payable are considered received. H and r block free edition How to report payments. H and r block free edition   Generally, include an advance payment in income in the year in which you receive it. H and r block free edition However, you can use the alternative method, discussed next. H and r block free edition Alternative method of reporting. H and r block free edition   Under the alternative method, generally include an advance payment in income in the earlier tax year in which you: Include advance payments in gross receipts under the method of accounting you use for tax purposes, or Include any part of advance payments in income for financial reports under the method of accounting used for those reports. H and r block free edition Financial reports include reports to shareholders, partners, beneficiaries, and other proprietors for credit purposes and consolidated financial statements. H and r block free edition Example 1. H and r block free edition You are a retailer. H and r block free edition You use an accrual method of accounting and account for the sale of goods when you ship the goods. H and r block free edition You use this method for both tax and financial reporting purposes. H and r block free edition You can include advance payments in gross receipts for tax purposes in either: (a) the tax year in which you receive the payments; or (b) the tax year in which you ship the goods. H and r block free edition However, see Exception for inventory goods, later. H and r block free edition Example 2. H and r block free edition You are a calendar year taxpayer. H and r block free edition You manufacture household furniture and use an accrual method of accounting. H and r block free edition Under this method, you accrue income for your financial reports when you ship the furniture. H and r block free edition For tax purposes, you do not accrue income until the furniture has been delivered and accepted. H and r block free edition In 2012, you received an advance payment of $8,000 for an order of furniture to be manufactured for a total price of $20,000. H and r block free edition You shipped the furniture to the customer in December 2012, but it was not delivered and accepted until January 2013. H and r block free edition For tax purposes, you include the $8,000 advance payment in gross income for 2012; and include the remaining $12,000 of the contract price in gross income for 2013. H and r block free edition Information schedule. H and r block free edition   If you use the alternative method of reporting advance payments, you must attach a statement with the following information to your tax return each year. H and r block free edition Total advance payments received in the current tax year. H and r block free edition Total advance payments received in earlier tax years and not included in income before the current tax year. H and r block free edition Total payments received in earlier tax years included in income for the current tax year. H and r block free edition Exception for inventory goods. H and r block free edition   If you have an agreement to sell goods properly included in inventory, you can postpone including the advance payment in income until the end of the second tax year following the year you receive an advance payment if, on the last day of the tax year, you meet the following requirements. H and r block free edition You account for the advance payment under the alternative method (discussed earlier). H and r block free edition You have received a substantial advance payment on the agreement (discussed next). H and r block free edition You have enough substantially similar goods on hand, or available through your normal source of supply, to satisfy the agreement. H and r block free edition These rules also apply to an agreement, such as a gift certificate, that can be satisfied with goods that cannot be identified in the tax year you receive an advance payment. H and r block free edition   If you meet these conditions, all advance payments you receive by the end of the second tax year, including payments received in prior years but not reported, must be included in income by the second tax year following the tax year of receipt of substantial advance payments. H and r block free edition You must also deduct in that second year all actual or estimated costs for the goods required to satisfy the agreement. H and r block free edition If you estimated the cost, you must take into account any difference between the estimate and the actual cost when the goods are delivered. H and r block free edition Note. H and r block free edition You must report any advance payments you receive after the second year in the year received. H and r block free edition No further deferral is allowed. H and r block free edition Substantial advance payments. H and r block free edition   Under an agreement for a future sale, you have substantial advance payments if, by the end of the tax year, the total advance payments received during that year and preceding tax years are equal to or more than the total costs reasonably estimated to be includible in inventory because of the agreement. H and r block free edition Example. H and r block free edition You are a calendar year, accrual method taxpayer who accounts for advance payments under the alternative method. H and r block free edition In 2008, you entered into a contract for the sale of goods properly includible in your inventory. H and r block free edition The total contract price is $50,000 and you estimate that your total inventoriable costs for the goods will be $25,000. H and r block free edition You receive the following advance payments under the contract. H and r block free edition 2009 $17,500 2010 10,000 2011 7,500 2012 5,000 2013 5,000 2014 5,000 Total contract price $50,000   Your customer asked you to deliver the goods in 2015. H and r block free edition In your 2010 closing inventory, you had on hand enough of the type of goods specified in the contract to satisfy the contract. H and r block free edition Since the advance payments you had received by the end of 2010 were more than the costs you estimated, the payments are substantial advance payments. H and r block free edition   For 2012, include in income all payments you received by the end of 2012, the second tax year following the tax year in which you received substantial advance payments. H and r block free edition You must include $40,000 in sales for 2012 (the total amounts received from 2009 through 2012) and include in inventory the cost of the goods (or similar goods) on hand. H and r block free edition If no such goods are on hand, then estimate the cost necessary to satisfy the contract. H and r block free edition   No further deferral is allowed. H and r block free edition You must include in gross income the advance payment you receive each remaining year of the contract. H and r block free edition Take into account the difference between any estimated cost of goods sold and the actual cost when you deliver the goods in 2015. H and r block free edition IRS approval. H and r block free edition   You must file Form 3115 to obtain IRS approval to change your method of accounting for advance payments for sales. H and r block free edition Expenses Under an accrual method of accounting, you generally deduct or capitalize a business expense when both the following apply. H and r block free edition The all-events test has been met. H and r block free edition The test is met when: All events have occurred that fix the fact of liability, and The liability can be determined with reasonable accuracy. H and r block free edition Economic performance has occurred. H and r block free edition Economic Performance Generally, you cannot deduct or capitalize a business expense until economic performance occurs. H and r block free edition If your expense is for property or services provided to you, or for your use of property, economic performance occurs as the property or services are provided or the property is used. H and r block free edition If your expense is for property or services you provide to others, economic performance occurs as you provide the property or services. H and r block free edition Example. H and r block free edition You are a calendar year taxpayer. H and r block free edition You buy office supplies in December 2012. H and r block free edition You receive the supplies and the bill in December, but you pay the bill in January 2013. H and r block free edition You can deduct the expense in 2012 because all events have occurred to fix the liability, the amount of the liability can be determined, and economic performance occurred in 2012. H and r block free edition Your office supplies may qualify as a recurring item, discussed later. H and r block free edition If so, you can deduct them in 2012, even if the supplies are not delivered until 2013 (when economic performance occurs). H and r block free edition Workers' compensation and tort liability. H and r block free edition   If you are required to make payments under workers' compensation laws or in satisfaction of any tort liability, economic performance occurs as you make the payments. H and r block free edition If you are required to make payments to a special designated settlement fund established by court order for a tort liability, economic performance occurs as you make the payments. H and r block free edition Taxes. H and r block free edition   Economic performance generally occurs as estimated income tax, property taxes, employment taxes, etc. H and r block free edition are paid. H and r block free edition However, you can elect to treat taxes as a recurring item, discussed later. H and r block free edition You can also elect to ratably accrue real estate taxes. H and r block free edition See chapter 5 of Publication 535 for information about real estate taxes. H and r block free edition Other liabilities. H and r block free edition   Other liabilities for which economic performance occurs as you make payments include liabilities for breach of contract (to the extent of incidental, consequential, and liquidated damages), violation of law, rebates and refunds, awards, prizes, jackpots, insurance, and warranty and service contracts. H and r block free edition Interest. H and r block free edition   Economic performance occurs with the passage of time (as the borrower uses, and the lender forgoes use of, the lender's money) rather than as payments are made. H and r block free edition Compensation for services. H and r block free edition   Generally, economic performance occurs as an employee renders service to the employer. H and r block free edition However, deductions for compensation or other benefits paid to an employee in a year subsequent to economic performance are subject to the rules governing deferred compensation, deferred benefits, and funded welfare benefit plans. H and r block free edition For information on employee benefit programs, see Publication 15-B, Employer's Tax Guide to Fringe Benefits. H and r block free edition Vacation pay. H and r block free edition   You can take a current deduction for vacation pay earned by your employees if you pay it during the year or, if the amount is vested, within 2½ months after the end of the year. H and r block free edition If you pay it later than this, you must deduct it in the year actually paid. H and r block free edition An amount is vested if your right to it cannot be nullified or cancelled. H and r block free edition Exception for recurring items. H and r block free edition   An exception to the economic performance rule allows certain recurring items to be treated as incurred during the tax year even though economic performance has not occurred. H and r block free edition The exception applies if all the following requirements are met. H and r block free edition The all-events test, discussed earlier, is met. H and r block free edition Economic performance occurs by the earlier of the following dates. H and r block free edition 8½ months after the close of the year. H and r block free edition The date you file a timely return (including extensions) for the year. H and r block free edition The item is recurring in nature and you consistently treat similar items as incurred in the tax year in which the all-events test is met. H and r block free edition Either: The item is not material, or Accruing the item in the year in which the all-events test is met results in a better match against income than accruing the item in the year of economic performance. H and r block free edition This exception does not apply to workers' compensation or tort liabilities. H and r block free edition Amended return. H and r block free edition   You may be able to file an amended return and treat a liability as incurred under the recurring item exception. H and r block free edition You can do so if economic performance for the liability occurs after you file your tax return for the year, but within 8½ months after the close of the tax year. H and r block free edition Recurrence and consistency. H and r block free edition   To determine whether an item is recurring and consistently reported, consider the frequency with which the item and similar items are incurred (or expected to be incurred) and how you report these items for tax purposes. H and r block free edition A new expense or an expense not incurred every year can be treated as recurring if it is reasonable to expect that it will be incurred regularly in the future. H and r block free edition Materiality. H and r block free edition   Factors to consider in determining the materiality of a recurring item include the size of the item (both in absolute terms and in relation to your income and other expenses) and the treatment of the item on your financial statements. H and r block free edition   An item considered material for financial statement purposes is also considered material for tax purposes. H and r block free edition However, in certain situations an immaterial item for financial accounting purposes is treated as material for purposes of economic performance. H and r block free edition Matching expenses with income. H and r block free edition   Costs directly associated with the revenue of a period are properly allocable to that period. H and r block free edition To determine whether the accrual of an expense in a particular year results in a better match with the income to which it relates, generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP; visit www. H and r block free edition fasab. H and r block free edition gov/accepted. H and r block free edition html) are an important factor. H and r block free edition   For example, if you report sales income in the year of sale, but you do not ship the goods until the following year, the shipping costs are more properly matched to income in the year of sale than the year the goods are shipped. H and r block free edition Expenses that cannot be practically associated with income of a particular period, such as advertising costs, should be assigned to the period the costs are incurred. H and r block free edition However, the matching requirement is considered met for certain types of expenses. H and r block free edition These expenses include taxes, payments under insurance, warranty, and service contracts, rebates, refunds, awards, prizes, and jackpots. H and r block free edition Expenses Paid in Advance An expense you pay in advance is deductible only in the year to which it applies, unless the expense qualifies for the 12-month rule. H and r block free edition Under the 12-month rule, a taxpayer is not required to capitalize amounts paid to create certain rights or benefits for the taxpayer that do not extend beyond the earlier of the following. H and r block free edition 12 months after the right or benefit begins, or The end of the tax year after the tax year in which payment is made. H and r block free edition If you have not been applying the general rule (an expense paid in advance is deductible only in the year to which it applies) and/or the 12-month rule to the expenses you paid in advance, you must get IRS approval before using the general rule and/or the 12-month rule. H and r block free edition See Change in Accounting Method, later, for information on how to get IRS approval. H and r block free edition See Expense paid in advance under Cash Method, earlier, for examples illustrating the application of the general and 12-month rules. H and r block free edition Related Persons Business expenses and interest owed to a related person who uses the cash method of accounting are not deductible until you make the payment and the corresponding amount is includible in the related person's gross income. H and r block free edition Determine the relationship for this rule as of the end of the tax year for which the expense or interest would otherwise be deductible. H and r block free edition See section 267 of the Internal Revenue Code and Publication 542, Corporations, for the definition of related person. H and r block free edition Inventories An inventory is necessary to clearly show income when the production, purchase, or sale of merchandise is an income-producing factor. H and r block free edition If you must account for an inventory in your business, you must use an accrual method of accounting for your purchases and sales. H and r block free edition However, see Exceptions, next. H and r block free edition See also Accrual Method, earlier. H and r block free edition To figure taxable income, you must value your inventory at the beginning and end of each tax year. H and r block free edition To determine the value, you need a method for identifying the items in your inventory and a method for valuing these items. H and r block free edition See Identifying Cost and Valuing Inventory, later. H and r block free edition The rules for valuing inventory are not the same for all businesses. H and r block free edition The method you use must conform to generally accepted accounting principles for similar businesses and must clearly reflect income. H and r block free edition Your inventory practices must be consistent from year to year. H and r block free edition The rules discussed here apply only if they do not conflict with the uniform capitalization rules of section 263A and the mark-to-market rules of section 475. H and r block free edition Exceptions The following taxpayers can use the cash method of accounting even if they produce, purchase, or sell merchandise. H and r block free edition These taxpayers can also account for inventoriable items as materials and supplies that are not incidental (discussed later). H and r block free edition A qualifying taxpayer under Revenue Procedure 2001-10 on page 272 of Internal Revenue Bulletin 2001-2, available at www. H and r block free edition irs. H and r block free edition gov/pub/irs-irbs/irb01–02. H and r block free edition pdf. H and r block free edition A qualifying small business taxpayer under Revenue Procedure 2002-28, on page 815 of Internal Revenue Bulletin 2002-18, available at www. H and r block free edition irs. H and r block free edition gov/pub/irs-irbs/irb02–18. H and r block free edition pdf. H and r block free edition In addition to the information provided in this publication, you should see the revenue procedures referenced in the list, above, and the instructions for Form 3115 for information you will need to adopt or change to these accounting methods (see Changing methods, later). H and r block free edition Qualifying taxpayer. H and r block free edition   You are a qualifying taxpayer under Revenue Procedure 2001-10 only if: You satisfy the gross receipts test for each prior tax year ending on or after December 17, 1998 (see Gross receipts test for qualifying taxpayers, next). H and r block free edition Your average annual gross receipts for each test year (explained in Step 1, listed next) must be $1 million or less. H and r block free edition You are not a tax shelter as defined under section 448(d)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. H and r block free edition Gross receipts test for qualifying taxpayers. H and r block free edition   To determine if you meet the gross receipts test for qualifying taxpayers, use the following steps: Step 1. H and r block free edition List each of the test years. H and r block free edition For qualifying taxpayers under Revenue Procedure 2001-10, the test years are each prior tax year ending on or after December 17, 1998. H and r block free edition Step 2. H and r block free edition Determine your average annual gross receipts for each test year listed in Step 1. H and r block free edition Your average annual gross receipts for a tax year is determined by adding the gross receipts for that tax year and the 2 preceding tax years and dividing the total by 3. H and r block free edition Step 3. H and r block free edition You meet the gross receipts test for qualifying taxpayers if your average annual gross receipts for each test year listed in Step 1 is $1 million or less. H and r block free edition Qualifying small business taxpayer. H and r block free edition   You are a qualifying small business taxpayer under Revenue Procedure 2002-28 only if: You satisfy the gross receipts test for each prior tax year ending on or after December 31, 2000 (see Gross receipts test for qualifying small business taxpayers, next). H and r block free edition Your average annual gross receipts for each test year (explained in Step 1, listed next) must be $10 million or less. H and r block free edition You are not prohibited from using the cash method under section 448 of the Internal Revenue Code. H and r block free edition Your principle business activity is an eligible business. H and r block free edition See Eligible business, later. H and r block free edition You have not changed (or have not been required to change) from the cash method because you became ineligible to use the cash method under Revenue Procedure 2002-28. H and r block free edition Note. H and r block free edition Revenue Procedure 2002-28 does not apply to a farming business of a qualifying small business taxpayer. H and r block free edition A taxpayer engaged in the trade or business of farming generally is allowed to use the cash method for any farming business. H and r block free edition See Special rules for farming businesses under Cash Method, earlier. H and r block free edition Gross receipts test for qualifying small business taxpayers. H and r block free edition   To determine if you meet the gross receipts test for qualifying small business taxpayers, use the following steps: Step 1. H and r block free edition List each of the test years. H and r block free edition For qualifying small business taxpayers under Revenue Procedure 2002-28, the test years are each prior tax year ending on or after December 31, 2000. H and r block free edition Step 2. H and r block free edition Determine your average annual gross receipts for each test year listed in Step 1. H and r block free edition Your average annual gross receipts for a tax year is determined by adding the gross receipts for that tax year and the 2 preceding tax years and dividing the total by 3. H and r block free edition Step 3. H and r block free edition You meet the gross receipts test for qualifying small business taxpayers if your average annual gross receipts for each test year listed in Step 1 is $10 million or less. H and r block free edition Eligible business. H and r block free edition   An eligible business is any business for which a qualified small business taxpayer can use the cash method and choose to not keep an inventory. H and r block free edition You have an eligible business if you meet any of the following requirements. H and r block free edition Your principal business activity is described in a North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code other than any of the following NAICS subsector codes: NAICS codes 211 and 212 (mining activities). H and r block free edition NAICS codes 31-33 (manufacturing). H and r block free edition NAICS code 42 (wholesale trade). H and r block free edition NAICS codes 44-45 (retail trade). H and r block free edition NAICS codes 5111 and 5122 (information industries). H and r block free edition Your principal business activity is the provision of services, including the provision of property incident to those services. H and r block free edition Your principal business activity is the fabrication or modification of tangible personal property upon demand in accordance with customer design or specifications. H and r block free edition   Information about the NAICS codes can be found at http://www. H and r block free edition census. H and r block free edition gov/naics or in the instructions for your federal income tax return. H and r block free edition Gross receipts. H and r block free edition   In general, gross receipts must include all receipts from all your trades or businesses that must be recognized under the method of accounting you used for that tax year for federal income tax purposes. H and r block free edition See the definit