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Free efile Publication 561 - Main Contents Table of Contents What Is Fair Market Value (FMV)?Factors. Free efile Stock. Free efile Options. Free efile Determining Fair Market Value Problems in Determining Fair Market Value Valuation of Various Kinds of PropertyHousehold Goods Used Clothing Jewelry and Gems Paintings, Antiques, and Other Objects of Art Collections Cars, Boats, and Aircraft Inventory Patents Stocks and Bonds Real Estate Interest in a Business Annuities, Interests for Life or Terms of Years, Remainders, and Reversions Certain Life Insurance and Annuity Contracts Partial Interest in Property Not in Trust AppraisalsDeductions of More Than $5,000 Deductions of More Than $500,000 Qualified Appraisal Form 8283 Internal Revenue Service Review of Appraisals Penalty How To Get Tax HelpLow income tax clinics (LITCs). Free efile What Is Fair Market Value (FMV)? To figure how much you may deduct for property that you contribute, you must first determine its fair market value on the date of the contribution. Free efile Fair market value. Free efile   Fair market value (FMV) is the price that property would sell for on the open market. Free efile It is the price that would be agreed on between a willing buyer and a willing seller, with neither being required to act, and both having reasonable knowledge of the relevant facts. Free efile If you put a restriction on the use of property you donate, the FMV must reflect that restriction. Free efile Example 1. Free efile If you give used clothing to the Salvation Army, the FMV would be the price that typical buyers actually pay for clothing of this age, condition, style, and use. Free efile Usually, such items are worth far less than what you paid for them. Free efile Example 2. Free efile If you donate land and restrict its use to agricultural purposes, you must value the land at its value for agricultural purposes, even though it would have a higher FMV if it were not restricted. Free efile Factors. Free efile   In making and supporting the valuation of property, all factors affecting value are relevant and must be considered. Free efile These include: The cost or selling price of the item, Sales of comparable properties, Replacement cost, and Opinions of experts. Free efile   These factors are discussed later. Free efile Also, see Table 1 for a summary of questions to ask as you consider each factor. Free efile Date of contribution. Free efile   Ordinarily, the date of a contribution is the date that the transfer of the property takes place. Free efile Stock. Free efile   If you deliver, without any conditions, a properly endorsed stock certificate to a qualified organization or to an agent of the organization, the date of the contribution is the date of delivery. Free efile If the certificate is mailed and received through the regular mail, it is the date of mailing. Free efile If you deliver the certificate to a bank or broker acting as your agent or to the issuing corporation or its agent, for transfer into the name of the organization, the date of the contribution is the date the stock is transferred on the books of the corporation. Free efile Options. Free efile   If you grant an option to a qualified organization to buy real property, you have not made a charitable contribution until the organization exercises the option. Free efile The amount of the contribution is the FMV of the property on the date the option is exercised minus the exercise price. Free efile Example. Free efile You grant an option to a local university, which is a qualified organization, to buy real property. Free efile Under the option, the university could buy the property at any time during a 2-year period for $40,000. Free efile The FMV of the property on the date the option is granted is $50,000. Free efile In the following tax year, the university exercises the option. Free efile The FMV of the property on the date the option is exercised is $55,000. Free efile Therefore, you have made a charitable contribution of $15,000 ($55,000, the FMV, minus $40,000, the exercise price) in the tax year the option is exercised. Free efile Determining Fair Market Value Determining the value of donated property would be a simple matter if you could rely only on fixed formulas, rules, or methods. Free efile Usually it is not that simple. Free efile Using such formulas, etc. Free efile , seldom results in an acceptable determination of FMV. Free efile There is no single formula that always applies when determining the value of property. Free efile This is not to say that a valuation is only guesswork. Free efile You must consider all the facts and circumstances connected with the property, such as its desirability, use, and scarcity. Free efile For example, donated furniture should not be evaluated at some fixed rate such as 15% of the cost of new replacement furniture. Free efile When the furniture is contributed, it may be out of style or in poor condition, therefore having little or no market value. Free efile On the other hand, it may be an antique, the value of which could not be determined by using any formula. Free efile Cost or Selling Price of the Donated Property The cost of the property to you or the actual selling price received by the qualified organization may be the best indication of its FMV. Free efile However, because conditions in the market change, the cost or selling price of property may have less weight if the property was not bought or sold reasonably close to the date of contribution. Free efile The cost or selling price is a good indication of the property's value if: The purchase or sale took place close to the valuation date in an open market, The purchase or sale was at “arm's-length,” The buyer and seller knew all relevant facts, The buyer and seller did not have to act, and The market did not change between the date of purchase or sale and the valuation date. Free efile Example. Free efile Tom Morgan, who is not a dealer in gems, bought an assortment of gems for $5,000 from a promoter. Free efile The promoter claimed that the price was “wholesale” even though he and other dealers made similar sales at similar prices to other persons who were not dealers. Free efile The promoter said that if Tom kept the gems for more than 1 year and then gave them to charity, Tom could claim a charitable deduction of $15,000, which, according to the promoter, would be the value of the gems at the time of contribution. Free efile Tom gave the gems to a qualified charity 13 months after buying them. Free efile The selling price for these gems had not changed from the date of purchase to the date he donated them to charity. Free efile The best evidence of FMV depends on actual transactions and not on some artificial estimate. Free efile The $5,000 charged Tom and others is, therefore, the best evidence of the maximum FMV of the gems. Free efile Terms of the purchase or sale. Free efile   The terms of the purchase or sale should be considered in determining FMV if they influenced the price. Free efile These terms include any restrictions, understandings, or covenants limiting the use or disposition of the property. Free efile Rate of increase or decrease in value. Free efile   Unless you can show that there were unusual circumstances, it is assumed that the increase or decrease in the value of your donated property from your cost has been at a reasonable rate. Free efile For time adjustments, an appraiser may consider published price indexes for information on general price trends, building costs, commodity costs, securities, and works of art sold at auction in arm's-length sales. Free efile Example. Free efile Bill Brown bought a painting for $10,000. Free efile Thirteen months later he gave it to an art museum, claiming a charitable deduction of $15,000 on his tax return. Free efile The appraisal of the painting should include information showing that there were unusual circumstances that justify a 50% increase in value for the 13 months Bill held the property. Free efile Arm's-length offer. Free efile   An arm's-length offer to buy the property close to the valuation date may help to prove its value if the person making the offer was willing and able to complete the transaction. Free efile To rely on an offer, you should be able to show proof of the offer and the specific amount to be paid. Free efile Offers to buy property other than the donated item will help to determine value if the other property is reasonably similar to the donated property. Free efile Sales of Comparable Properties The sales prices of properties similar to the donated property are often important in determining the FMV. Free efile The weight to be given to each sale depends on the following. Free efile The degree of similarity between the property sold and the donated property. Free efile The time of the sale—whether it was close to the valuation date. Free efile The circumstances of the sale—whether it was at arm's-length with a knowledgeable buyer and seller, with neither having to act. Free efile The conditions of the market in which the sale was made—whether unusually inflated or deflated. Free efile The comparable sales method of valuing real estate is explained later under Valuation of Various Kinds of Property. Free efile Example 1. Free efile Mary Black, who is not a book dealer, paid a promoter $10,000 for 500 copies of a single edition of a modern translation of the Bible. Free efile The promoter had claimed that the price was considerably less than the “retail” price, and gave her a statement that the books had a total retail value of $30,000. Free efile The promoter advised her that if she kept the Bibles for more than 1 year and then gave them to a qualified organization, she could claim a charitable deduction for the “retail” price of $30,000. Free efile Thirteen months later she gave all the Bibles to a church that she selected from a list provided by the promoter. Free efile At the time of her donation, wholesale dealers were selling similar quantities of Bibles to the general public for $10,000. Free efile The FMV of the Bibles is $10,000, the price at which similar quantities of Bibles were being sold to others at the time of the contribution. Free efile Example 2. Free efile The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that the promoter gave Mary Black a second option. Free efile The promoter said that if Mary wanted a charitable deduction within 1 year of the purchase, she could buy the 500 Bibles at the “retail” price of $30,000, paying only $10,000 in cash and giving a promissory note for the remaining $20,000. Free efile The principal and interest on the note would not be due for 12 years. Free efile According to the promoter, Mary could then, within 1 year of the purchase, give the Bibles to a qualified organization and claim the full $30,000 retail price as a charitable contribution. Free efile She purchased the Bibles under the second option and, 3 months later, gave them to a church, which will use the books for church purposes. Free efile At the time of the gift, the promoter was selling similar lots of Bibles for either $10,000 or $30,000. Free efile The difference between the two prices was solely at the discretion of the buyer. Free efile The promoter was a willing seller for $10,000. Free efile Therefore, the value of Mary's contribution of the Bibles is $10,000, the amount at which similar lots of Bibles could be purchased from the promoter by members of the general public. Free efile Replacement Cost The cost of buying, building, or manufacturing property similar to the donated item should be considered in determining FMV. Free efile However, there must be a reasonable relationship between the replacement cost and the FMV. Free efile The replacement cost is the amount it would cost to replace the donated item on the valuation date. Free efile Often there is no relationship between the replacement cost and the FMV. Free efile If the supply of the donated property is more or less than the demand for it, the replacement cost becomes less important. Free efile To determine the replacement cost of the donated property, find the “estimated replacement cost new. Free efile ” Then subtract from this figure an amount for depreciation due to the physical condition and obsolescence of the donated property. Free efile You should be able to show the relationship between the depreciated replacement cost and the FMV, as well as how you arrived at the “estimated replacement cost new. Free efile ” Opinions of Experts Generally, the weight given to an expert's opinion on matters such as the authenticity of a coin or a work of art, or the most profitable and best use of a piece of real estate, depends on the knowledge and competence of the expert and the thoroughness with which the opinion is supported by experience and facts. Free efile For an expert's opinion to deserve much weight, the facts must support the opinion. Free efile For additional information, see Appraisals, later. Free efile Table 1. Free efile Factors That Affect FMV IF the factor you are considering is. Free efile . Free efile . Free efile THEN you should ask these questions. Free efile . Free efile . Free efile     cost or selling price Was the purchase or sale of the property reasonably close to the date of contribution? Was any increase or decrease in value, as compared to your cost, at a reasonable rate? Do the terms of purchase or sale limit what can be done with the property? Was there an arm's-length offer to buy the property close to the valuation date?     sales of comparable properties How similar is the property sold to the property donated? How close is the date of sale to the valuation date? Was the sale at arm's-length? What was the condition of the market at the time of sale?     replacement cost What would it cost to replace the donated property? Is there a reasonable relationship between replacement cost and FMV? Is the supply of the donated property more or less than the demand for it?     opinions of experts Is the expert knowledgeable and competent? Is the opinion thorough and supported by facts and experience? Problems in Determining Fair Market Value There are a number of problems in determining the FMV of donated property. Free efile Unusual Market Conditions The sale price of the property itself in an arm's-length transaction in an open market is often the best evidence of its value. Free efile When you rely on sales of comparable property, the sales must have been made in an open market. Free efile If those sales were made in a market that was artificially supported or stimulated so as not to be truly representative, the prices at which the sales were made will not indicate the FMV. Free efile For example, liquidation sale prices usually do not indicate the FMV. Free efile Also, sales of stock under unusual circumstances, such as sales of small lots, forced sales, and sales in a restricted market, may not represent the FMV. Free efile Selection of Comparable Sales Using sales of comparable property is an important method for determining the FMV of donated property. Free efile However, the amount of weight given to a sale depends on the degree of similarity between the comparable and the donated properties. Free efile The degree of similarity must be close enough so that this selling price would have been given consideration by reasonably well-informed buyers or sellers of the property. Free efile Example. Free efile You give a rare, old book to your former college. Free efile The book is a third edition and is in poor condition because of a missing back cover. Free efile You discover that there was a sale for $300, near the valuation date, of a first edition of the book that was in good condition. Free efile Although the contents are the same, the books are not at all similar because of the different editions and their physical condition. Free efile Little consideration would be given to the selling price of the $300 property by knowledgeable buyers or sellers. Free efile Future Events You may not consider unexpected events happening after your donation of property in making the valuation. Free efile You may consider only the facts known at the time of the gift, and those that could be reasonably expected at the time of the gift. Free efile Example. Free efile You give farmland to a qualified charity. Free efile The transfer provides that your mother will have the right to all income and full use of the property for her life. Free efile Even though your mother dies 1 week after the transfer, the value of the property on the date it is given is its present value, subject to the life interest as estimated from actuarial tables. Free efile You may not take a higher deduction because the charity received full use and possession of the land only 1 week after the transfer. Free efile Using Past Events to Predict the Future A common error is to rely too much on past events that do not fairly reflect the probable future earnings and FMV. Free efile Example. Free efile You give all your rights in a successful patent to your favorite charity. Free efile Your records show that before the valuation date there were three stages in the patent's history of earnings. Free efile First, there was rapid growth in earnings when the invention was introduced. Free efile Then, there was a period of high earnings when the invention was being exploited. Free efile Finally, there was a decline in earnings when competing inventions were introduced. Free efile The entire history of earnings may be relevant in estimating the future earnings. Free efile However, the appraiser must not rely too much on the stage of rapid growth in earnings, or of high earnings. Free efile The market conditions at those times do not represent the condition of the market at the valuation date. Free efile What is most significant is the trend of decline in earnings up to the valuation date. Free efile For more information about donations of patents, see Patents, later. Free efile Valuation of Various Kinds of Property This section contains information on determining the FMV of ordinary kinds of donated property. Free efile For information on appraisals, see Appraisals, later. Free efile Household Goods The FMV of used household goods, such as furniture, appliances, and linens, is usually much lower than the price paid when new. Free efile Such used property may have little or no market value because of its worn condition. Free efile It may be out of style or no longer useful. Free efile You cannot take a deduction for household goods donated after August 17, 2006, unless they are in good used condition or better. Free efile A household good that is not in good used condition or better for which you take a deduction of more than $500 requires a qualified appraisal. Free efile See Deduction over $500 for certain clothing or household items, later. Free efile If the property is valuable because it is old or unique, see the discussion under Paintings, Antiques, and Other Objects of Art. Free efile Used Clothing Used clothing and other personal items are usually worth far less than the price you paid for them. Free efile Valuation of items of clothing does not lend itself to fixed formulas or methods. Free efile The price that buyers of used items actually pay in used clothing stores, such as consignment or thrift shops, is an indication of the value. Free efile You cannot take a deduction for clothing donated after August 17, 2006, unless it is in good used condition or better. Free efile An item of clothing that is not in good used condition or better for which you take a deduction of more than $500 requires a qualified appraisal. Free efile See Deduction over $500 for certain clothing or household items, later. Free efile For valuable furs or very expensive gowns, a Form 8283 may have to be sent with your tax return. Free efile Jewelry and Gems Jewelry and gems are of such a specialized nature that it is almost always necessary to get an appraisal by a specialized jewelry appraiser. Free efile The appraisal should describe, among other things, the style of the jewelry, the cut and setting of the gem, and whether it is now in fashion. Free efile If not in fashion, the possibility of having the property redesigned, recut, or reset should be reported in the appraisal. Free efile The stone's coloring, weight, cut, brilliance, and flaws should be reported and analyzed. Free efile Sentimental personal value has no effect on FMV. Free efile But if the jewelry was owned by a famous person, its value might increase. Free efile Paintings, Antiques, and Other Objects of Art Your deduction for contributions of paintings, antiques, and other objects of art, should be supported by a written appraisal from a qualified and reputable source, unless the deduction is $5,000 or less. Free efile Examples of information that should be included in appraisals of art objects—paintings in particular—are found later under Qualified Appraisal. Free efile Art valued at $20,000 or more. Free efile   If you claim a deduction of $20,000 or more for donations of art, you must attach a complete copy of the signed appraisal to your return. Free efile For individual objects valued at $20,000 or more, a photograph of a size and quality fully showing the object, preferably an 8 x 10 inch color photograph or a color transparency no smaller than 4 x 5 inches, must be provided upon request. Free efile Art valued at $50,000 or more. Free efile   If you donate an item of art that has been appraised at $50,000 or more, you can request a Statement of Value for that item from the IRS. Free efile You must request the statement before filing the tax return that reports the donation. Free efile Your request must include the following. Free efile A copy of a qualified appraisal of the item. Free efile See Qualified Appraisal, later. Free efile A $2,500 check or money order payable to the Internal Revenue Service for the user fee that applies to your request regarding one, two, or three items of art. Free efile Add $250 for each item in excess of three. Free efile A completed Form 8283, Section B. Free efile The location of the IRS territory that has examination responsibility for your return. Free efile If your request lacks essential information, you will be notified and given 30 days to provide the missing information. Free efile   Send your request to: Internal Revenue Service Attention: Art Appraisal (C:AP:ART) P. Free efile O. Free efile Box 27720 McPherson Station Washington, DC 20038 Refunds. Free efile   You can withdraw your request for a Statement of Value at any time before it is issued. Free efile However, the IRS will not refund the user fee if you do. Free efile   If the IRS declines to issue a Statement of Value in the interest of efficient tax administration, the IRS will refund the user fee. Free efile Authenticity. Free efile   The authenticity of the donated art must be determined by the appraiser. Free efile Physical condition. Free efile   Important items in the valuation of antiques and art are physical condition and extent of restoration. Free efile These have a significant effect on the value and must be fully reported in an appraisal. Free efile An antique in damaged condition, or lacking the “original brasses,” may be worth much less than a similar piece in excellent condition. Free efile Art appraisers. Free efile   More weight will usually be given to an appraisal prepared by an individual specializing in the kind and price range of the art being appraised. Free efile Certain art dealers or appraisers specialize, for example, in old masters, modern art, bronze sculpture, etc. Free efile Their opinions on the authenticity and desirability of such art would usually be given more weight than the opinions of more generalized art dealers or appraisers. Free efile They can report more recent comparable sales to support their opinion. Free efile   To identify and locate experts on unique, specialized items or collections, you may wish to use the current Official Museum Directory of the American Association of Museums. Free efile It lists museums both by state and by category. Free efile   To help you locate a qualified appraiser for your donation, you may wish to ask an art historian at a nearby college or the director or curator of a local museum. Free efile The Yellow Pages often list specialized art and antique dealers, auctioneers, and art appraisers. Free efile You may be able to find a qualified appraiser on the Internet. Free efile You may also contact associations of dealers for guidance. Free efile Collections Since many kinds of hobby collections may be the subject of a charitable donation, it is not possible to discuss all of the possible collectibles in this publication. Free efile Most common are rare books, autographs, sports memorabilia, dolls, manuscripts, stamps, coins, guns, phonograph records, and natural history items. Free efile Many of the elements of valuation that apply to paintings and other objects of art, discussed earlier, also apply to miscellaneous collections. Free efile Reference material. Free efile   Publications available to help you determine the value of many kinds of collections include catalogs, dealers' price lists, and specialized hobby periodicals. Free efile When using one of these price guides, you must use the current edition at the date of contribution. Free efile However, these sources are not always reliable indicators of FMV and should be supported by other evidence. Free efile   For example, a dealer may sell an item for much less than is shown on a price list, particularly after the item has remained unsold for a long time. Free efile The price an item sold for in an auction may have been the result of a rigged sale or a mere bidding duel. Free efile The appraiser must analyze the reference material, and recognize and make adjustments for misleading entries. Free efile If you are donating a valuable collection, you should get an appraisal. Free efile If your donation appears to be of little value, you may be able to make a satisfactory valuation using reference materials available at a state, city, college, or museum library. Free efile Stamp collections. Free efile   Most libraries have catalogs or other books that report the publisher's estimate of values. Free efile Generally, two price levels are shown for each stamp: the price postmarked and the price not postmarked. Free efile Stamp dealers generally know the value of their merchandise and are able to prepare satisfactory appraisals of valuable collections. Free efile Coin collections. Free efile   Many catalogs and other reference materials show the writer's or publisher's opinion of the value of coins on or near the date of the publication. Free efile Like many other collectors' items, the value of a coin depends on the demand for it, its age, and its rarity. Free efile Another important factor is the coin's condition. Free efile For example, there is a great difference in the value of a coin that is in mint condition and a similar coin that is only in good condition. Free efile   Catalogs usually establish a category for coins, based on their physical condition—mint or uncirculated, extremely fine, very fine, fine, very good, good, fair, or poor—with a different valuation for each category. Free efile Books. Free efile   The value of books is usually determined by selecting comparable sales and adjusting the prices according to the differences between the comparable sales and the item being evaluated. Free efile This is difficult to do and, except for a collection of little value, should be done by a specialized appraiser. Free efile Within the general category of literary property, there are dealers who specialize in certain areas, such as Americana, foreign imports, Bibles, and scientific books. Free efile Modest value of collection. Free efile   If the collection you are donating is of modest value, not requiring a written appraisal, the following information may help you in determining the FMV. Free efile   A book that is very old, or very rare, is not necessarily valuable. Free efile There are many books that are very old or rare, but that have little or no market value. Free efile Condition of book. Free efile   The condition of a book may have a great influence on its value. Free efile Collectors are interested in items that are in fine, or at least good, condition. Free efile When a book has a missing page, a loose binding, tears, stains, or is otherwise in poor condition, its value is greatly lowered. Free efile Other factors. Free efile   Some other factors in the valuation of a book are the kind of binding (leather, cloth, paper), page edges, and illustrations (drawings and photographs). Free efile Collectors usually want first editions of books. Free efile However, because of changes or additions, other editions are sometimes worth as much as, or more than, the first edition. Free efile Manuscripts, autographs, diaries, and similar items. Free efile   When these items are handwritten, or at least signed by famous people, they are often in demand and are valuable. Free efile The writings of unknowns also may be of value if they are of unusual historical or literary importance. Free efile Determining the value of such material is difficult. Free efile For example, there may be a great difference in value between two diaries that were kept by a famous person—one kept during childhood and the other during a later period in his or her life. Free efile The appraiser determines a value in these cases by applying knowledge and judgment to such factors as comparable sales and conditions. Free efile Signatures. Free efile   Signatures, or sets of signatures, that were cut from letters or other papers usually have little or no value. Free efile But complete sets of the signatures of U. Free efile S. Free efile presidents are in demand. Free efile Cars, Boats, and Aircraft If you donate a car, a boat, or an aircraft to a charitable organization, its FMV must be determined. Free efile Certain commercial firms and trade organizations publish monthly or seasonal guides for different regions of the country, containing complete dealer sale prices or dealer average prices for recent model years. Free efile Prices are reported for each make, model, and year. Free efile These guides also provide estimates for adjusting for unusual equipment, unusual mileage, and physical condition. Free efile The prices are not “official,” and these publications are not considered an appraisal of any specific donated property. Free efile But they do provide clues for making an appraisal and suggest relative prices for comparison with current sales and offerings in your area. Free efile These publications are sometimes available from public libraries or at a bank, credit union, or finance company. Free efile You can also find pricing information about used cars on the Internet. Free efile An acceptable measure of the FMV of a donated car, boat, or airplane is an amount not in excess of the price listed in a used vehicle pricing guide for a private party sale, not the dealer retail value, of a similar vehicle. Free efile However, the FMV may be less than that amount if the vehicle has engine trouble, body damage, high mileage, or any type of excessive wear. Free efile The FMV of a donated vehicle is the same as the price listed in a used vehicle pricing guide for a private party sale only if the guide lists a sales price for a vehicle that is the same make, model, and year, sold in the same area, in the same condition, with the same or similar options or accessories, and with the same or similar warranties as the donated vehicle. Free efile Example. Free efile You donate a used car in poor condition to a local high school for use by students studying car repair. Free efile A used car guide shows the dealer retail value for this type of car in poor condition is $1,600. Free efile However, the guide shows the price for a private party sale of the car is only $750. Free efile The FMV of the car is considered to be no more than $750. Free efile Boats. Free efile   Except for inexpensive small boats, the valuation of boats should be based on an appraisal by a marine surveyor because the physical condition is so critical to the value. Free efile More information. Free efile   Your deduction for a donated car, boat, or airplane generally is limited to the gross proceeds from its sale by the qualified organization. Free efile This rule applies if the claimed value of the donated vehicle is more than $500. Free efile In certain cases, you can deduct the vehicle's FMV. Free efile For details, see Publication 526. Free efile Inventory If you donate any inventory item to a charitable organization, the amount of your deductible contribution generally is the FMV of the item, minus any gain you would have realized if you had sold the item at its FMV on the date of the gift. Free efile For more information, see Publication 526. Free efile Patents To determine the FMV of a patent, you must take into account, among other factors: Whether the patented technology has been made obsolete by other technology; Any restrictions on the donee's use of, or ability to transfer, the patented technology; and The length of time remaining before the patent expires. Free efile However, your deduction for a donation of a patent or other intellectual property is its FMV, minus any gain you would have realized if you had sold the property at its FMV on the date of the gift. Free efile Generally, this means your deduction is the lesser of the property's FMV or its basis. Free efile For details, see Publication 526. Free efile Stocks and Bonds The value of stocks and bonds is the FMV of a share or bond on the valuation date. Free efile See Date of contribution, earlier, under What Is Fair Market Value (FMV). Free efile Selling prices on valuation date. Free efile   If there is an active market for the contributed stocks or bonds on a stock exchange, in an over-the-counter market, or elsewhere, the FMV of each share or bond is the average price between the highest and lowest quoted selling prices on the valuation date. Free efile For example, if the highest selling price for a share was $11, and the lowest $9, the average price is $10. Free efile You get the average price by adding $11 and $9 and dividing the sum by 2. Free efile No sales on valuation date. Free efile   If there were no sales on the valuation date, but there were sales within a reasonable period before and after the valuation date, you determine FMV by taking the average price between the highest and lowest sales prices on the nearest date before and on the nearest date after the valuation date. Free efile Then you weight these averages in inverse order by the respective number of trading days between the selling dates and the valuation date. Free efile Example. Free efile   On the day you gave stock to a qualified organization, there were no sales of the stock. Free efile Sales of the stock nearest the valuation date took place two trading days before the valuation date at an average selling price of $10 and three trading days after the valuation date at an average selling price of $15. Free efile The FMV on the valuation date was $12, figured as follows: [(3 x $10) + (2 x $15)] ÷ 5 = $12 Listings on more than one stock exchange. Free efile   Stocks or bonds listed on more than one stock exchange are valued based on the prices of the exchange on which they are principally dealt. Free efile This applies if these prices are published in a generally available listing or publication of general circulation. Free efile If this is not applicable, and the stocks or bonds are reported on a composite listing of combined exchanges in a publication of general circulation, use the composite list. Free efile See also Unavailable prices or closely held corporation, later. Free efile Bid and asked prices on valuation date. Free efile   If there were no sales within a reasonable period before and after the valuation date, the FMV is the average price between the bona fide bid and asked prices on the valuation date. Free efile Example. Free efile Although there were no sales of Blue Corporation stock on the valuation date, bona fide bid and asked prices were available on that date of $14 and $16, respectively. Free efile The FMV is $15, the average price between the bid and asked prices. Free efile No prices on valuation date. Free efile   If there were no prices available on the valuation date, you determine FMV by taking the average prices between the bona fide bid and asked prices on the closest trading date before and after the valuation date. Free efile Both dates must be within a reasonable period. Free efile Then you weight these averages in inverse order by the respective number of trading days between the bid and asked dates and the valuation date. Free efile Example. Free efile On the day you gave stock to a qualified organization, no prices were available. Free efile Bona fide bid and asked prices 3 days before the valuation date were $10 and 2 days after the valuation date were $15. Free efile The FMV on the valuation date is $13, figured as follows: [(2 x $10) + (3 x $15)] ÷ 5 = $13 Prices only before or after valuation date, but not both. Free efile   If no selling prices or bona fide bid and asked prices are available on a date within a reasonable period before the valuation date, but are available on a date within a reasonable period after the valuation date, or vice versa, then the average price between the highest and lowest of such available prices may be treated as the value. Free efile Large blocks of stock. Free efile   When a large block of stock is put on the market, it may lower the selling price of the stock if the supply is greater than the demand. Free efile On the other hand, market forces may exist that will afford higher prices for large blocks of stock. Free efile Because of the many factors to be considered, determining the value of large blocks of stock usually requires the help of experts specializing in underwriting large quantities of securities, or in trading in the securities of the industry of which the particular company is a part. Free efile Unavailable prices or closely held corporation. Free efile   If selling prices or bid and asked prices are not available, or if securities of a closely held corporation are involved, determine the FMV by considering the following factors. Free efile For bonds, the soundness of the security, the interest yield, the date of maturity, and other relevant factors. Free efile For shares of stock, the company's net worth, prospective earning power and dividend-paying capacity, and other relevant factors. Free efile Other factors. Free efile   Other relevant factors include: The nature and history of the business, especially its recent history, The goodwill of the business, The economic outlook in the particular industry, The company's position in the industry, its competitors, and its management, and The value of securities of corporations engaged in the same or similar business. Free efile For preferred stock, the most important factors are its yield, dividend coverage, and protection of its liquidation preference. Free efile   You should keep complete financial and other information on which the valuation is based. Free efile This includes copies of reports of examinations of the company made by accountants, engineers, or any technical experts on or close to the valuation date. Free efile Restricted securities. Free efile   Some classes of stock cannot be traded publicly because of restrictions imposed by the Securities and Exchange Commission, or by the corporate charter or a trust agreement. Free efile These restricted securities usually trade at a discount in relation to freely traded securities. Free efile   To arrive at the FMV of restricted securities, factors that you must consider include the resale provisions found in the restriction agreements, the relative negotiating strengths of the buyer and seller, and the market experience of freely traded securities of the same class as the restricted securities. Free efile Real Estate Because each piece of real estate is unique and its valuation is complicated, a detailed appraisal by a professional appraiser is necessary. Free efile The appraiser must be thoroughly trained in the application of appraisal principles and theory. Free efile In some instances the opinions of equally qualified appraisers may carry unequal weight, such as when one appraiser has a better knowledge of local conditions. Free efile The appraisal report must contain a complete description of the property, such as street address, legal description, and lot and block number, as well as physical features, condition, and dimensions. Free efile The use to which the property is put, zoning and permitted uses, and its potential use for other higher and better uses are also relevant. Free efile In general, there are three main approaches to the valuation of real estate. Free efile An appraisal may require the combined use of two or three methods rather than one method only. Free efile 1. Free efile Comparable Sales The comparable sales method compares the donated property with several similar properties that have been sold. Free efile The selling prices, after adjustments for differences in date of sale, size, condition, and location, would then indicate the estimated FMV of the donated property. Free efile If the comparable sales method is used to determine the value of unimproved real property (land without significant buildings, structures, or any other improvements that add to its value), the appraiser should consider the following factors when comparing the potential comparable property and the donated property: Location, size, and zoning or use restrictions, Accessibility and road frontage, and available utilities and water rights, Riparian rights (right of access to and use of the water by owners of land on the bank of a river) and existing easements, rights-of-way, leases, etc. Free efile , Soil characteristics, vegetative cover, and status of mineral rights, and Other factors affecting value. Free efile For each comparable sale, the appraisal must include the names of the buyer and seller, the deed book and page number, the date of sale and selling price, a property description, the amount and terms of mortgages, property surveys, the assessed value, the tax rate, and the assessor's appraised FMV. Free efile The comparable selling prices must be adjusted to account for differences between the sale property and the donated property. Free efile Because differences of opinion may arise between appraisers as to the degree of comparability and the amount of the adjustment considered necessary for comparison purposes, an appraiser should document each item of adjustment. Free efile Only comparable sales having the least adjustments in terms of items and/or total dollar adjustments should be considered as comparable to the donated property. Free efile 2. Free efile Capitalization of Income This method capitalizes the net income from the property at a rate that represents a fair return on the particular investment at the particular time, considering the risks involved. Free efile The key elements are the determination of the income to be capitalized and the rate of capitalization. Free efile 3. Free efile Replacement Cost New or Reproduction Cost Minus Observed Depreciation This method, used alone, usually does not result in a determination of FMV. Free efile Instead, it generally tends to set the upper limit of value, particularly in periods of rising costs, because it is reasonable to assume that an informed buyer will not pay more for the real estate than it would cost to reproduce a similar property. Free efile Of course, this reasoning does not apply if a similar property cannot be created because of location, unusual construction, or some other reason. Free efile Generally, this method serves to support the value determined from other methods. Free efile When the replacement cost method is applied to improved realty, the land and improvements are valued separately. Free efile The replacement cost of a building is figured by considering the materials, the quality of workmanship, and the number of square feet or cubic feet in the building. Free efile This cost represents the total cost of labor and material, overhead, and profit. Free efile After the replacement cost has been figured, consideration must be given to the following factors: Physical deterioration—the wear and tear on the building itself, Functional obsolescence—usually in older buildings with, for example, inadequate lighting, plumbing, or heating, small rooms, or a poor floor plan, and Economic obsolescence—outside forces causing the whole area to become less desirable. Free efile Interest in a Business The FMV of any interest in a business, whether a sole proprietorship or a partnership, is the amount that a willing buyer would pay for the interest to a willing seller after consideration of all relevant factors. Free efile The relevant factors to be considered in valuing the business are: The FMV of the assets of the business, The demonstrated earnings capacity of the business, based on a review of past and current earnings, and The other factors used in evaluating corporate stock, if they apply. Free efile The value of the goodwill of the business should also be taken into consideration. Free efile You should keep complete financial and other information on which you base the valuation. Free efile This includes copies of reports of examinations of the business made by accountants, engineers, or any technical experts on or close to the valuation date. Free efile Annuities, Interests for Life or Terms of Years, Remainders, and Reversions The value of these kinds of property is their present value, except in the case of annuities under contracts issued by companies regularly engaged in their sale. Free efile The valuation of these commercial annuity contracts and of insurance policies is discussed later under Certain Life Insurance and Annuity Contracts. Free efile To determine present value, you must know the applicable interest rate and use actuarial tables. Free efile Interest rate. Free efile   The applicable interest rate varies. Free efile It is announced monthly in a news release and published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin as a Revenue Ruling. Free efile The interest rate to use is under the heading “Rate Under Section 7520” for a given month and year. Free efile You can call the IRS office at 1-800-829-1040 to obtain this rate. Free efile Actuarial tables. Free efile   You need to refer to actuarial tables to determine a qualified interest in the form of an annuity, any interest for life or a term of years, or any remainder interest to a charitable organization. Free efile   Use the valuation tables set forth in IRS Publications 1457, Actuarial Values (Book Aleph), and 1458, Actuarial Values (Book Beth). Free efile Both of these publications provide tables containing actuarial factors to be used in determining the present value of an annuity, an interest for life or for a term of years, or a remainder or reversionary interest. Free efile For qualified charitable transfers, you can use the factor for the month in which you made the contribution or for either of the 2 months preceding that month. Free efile   Publication 1457 also contains actuarial factors for computing the value of a remainder interest in a charitable remainder annuity trust and a pooled income fund. Free efile Publication 1458 contains the factors for valuing the remainder interest in a charitable remainder unitrust. Free efile You can download Publications 1457 and 1458 from www. Free efile irs. Free efile gov. Free efile In addition, they are available for purchase via the website of the U. Free efile S. Free efile Government Printing Office, by phone at (202) 512-1800, or by mail from the: Superintendent of Documents P. Free efile O. Free efile Box 371954 Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954 Tables containing actuarial factors for transfers to pooled income funds may also be found in Income Tax Regulation 1. Free efile 642(c)-6(e)(6), transfers to charitable remainder unitrusts in Regulation 1. Free efile 664-4(e), and other transfers in Regulation 20. Free efile 2031-7(d)(6). Free efile Special factors. Free efile   If you need a special factor for an actual transaction, you can request a letter ruling. Free efile Be sure to include the date of birth of each person the duration of whose life may affect the value of the interest. Free efile Also include copies of the relevant instruments. Free efile IRS charges a user fee for providing special factors. Free efile   For more information about requesting a ruling, see Revenue Procedure 2006-1 (or annual update), 2006-1 I. Free efile R. Free efile B. Free efile 1. Free efile Revenue Procedure 2006-1 is available at www. Free efile irs. Free efile gov/irb/2006-01_IRB/ar06. Free efile html. Free efile   For information on the circumstances under which a charitable deduction may be allowed for the donation of a partial interest in property not in trust, see Partial Interest in Property Not in Trust, later. Free efile Certain Life Insurance and Annuity Contracts The value of an annuity contract or a life insurance policy issued by a company regularly engaged in the sale of such contracts or policies is the amount that company would charge for a comparable contract. Free efile But if the donee of a life insurance policy may reasonably be expected to cash the policy rather than hold it as an investment, then the FMV is the cash surrender value rather than the replacement cost. Free efile If an annuity is payable under a combination annuity contract and life insurance policy (for example, a retirement income policy with a death benefit) and there was no insurance element when it was transferred to the charity, the policy is treated as an annuity contract. Free efile Partial Interest in Property Not in Trust Generally, no deduction is allowed for a charitable contribution, not made in trust, of less than your entire interest in property. Free efile However, this does not apply to a transfer of less than your entire interest if it is a transfer of: A remainder interest in your personal residence or farm, An undivided part of your entire interest in property, or A qualified conservation contribution. Free efile Remainder Interest in Real Property The amount of the deduction for a donation of a remainder interest in real property is the FMV of the remainder interest at the time of the contribution. Free efile To determine this value, you must know the FMV of the property on the date of the contribution. Free efile Multiply this value by the appropriate factor. Free efile Publications 1457 and 1458 contain these factors. Free efile You must make an adjustment for depreciation or depletion using the factors shown in Publication 1459, Actuarial Values (Book Gimel). Free efile You can use the factors for the month in which you made the contribution or for either of the two months preceding that month. Free efile See the earlier discussion on Annuities, Interests for Life or Terms of Years, Remainders, and Reversions. Free efile You can download Publication 1459 from www. Free efile irs. Free efile gov. Free efile For this purpose, the term “depreciable property” means any property subject to wear and tear or obsolescence, even if not used in a trade or business or for the production of income. Free efile If the remainder interest includes both depreciable and nondepreciable property, for example a house and land, the FMV must be allocated between each kind of property at the time of the contribution. Free efile This rule also applies to a gift of a remainder interest that includes property that is part depletable and part not depletable. Free efile Take into account depreciation or depletion only for the property that is subject to depreciation or depletion. Free efile For more information, see section 1. Free efile 170A-12 of the Income Tax Regulations. Free efile Undivided Part of Your Entire Interest A contribution of an undivided part of your entire interest in property must consist of a part of each and every substantial interest or right you own in the property. Free efile It must extend over the entire term of your interest in the property. Free efile For example, you are entitled to the income from certain property for your life (life estate) and you contribute 20% of that life estate to a qualified organization. Free efile You can claim a deduction for the contribution if you do not have any other interest in the property. Free efile To figure the value of a contribution involving a partial interest, see Publication 1457. Free efile If the only interest you own in real property is a remainder interest and you transfer part of that interest to a qualified organization, see the previous discussion on valuation of a remainder interest in real property. Free efile Qualified Conservation Contribution A qualified conservation contribution is a contribution of a qualified real property interest to a qualified organization to be used only for conservation purposes. Free efile Qualified organization. Free efile   For purposes of a qualified conservation contribution, a qualified organization is: A governmental unit, A publicly supported charitable, religious, scientific, literary, educational, etc. Free efile , organization, or An organization that is controlled by, and operated for the exclusive benefit of, a governmental unit or a publicly supported charity. Free efile The organization also must have a commitment to protect the conservation purposes of the donation and must have the resources to enforce the restrictions. Free efile Conservation purposes. Free efile   Your contribution must be made only for one of the following conservation purposes. Free efile Preserving land areas for outdoor recreation by, or for the education of, the general public. Free efile Protecting a relatively natural habitat of fish, wildlife, or plants, or a similar ecosystem. Free efile Preserving open space, including farmland and forest land, if it yields a significant public benefit. Free efile It must be either for the scenic enjoyment of the general public or under a clearly defined federal, state, or local governmental conservation policy. Free efile Preserving a historically important land area or a certified historic structure. Free efile There must be some visual public access to the property. Free efile Factors used in determining the type and amount of public access required include the historical significance of the property, the remoteness or accessibility of the site, and the extent to which intrusions on the privacy of individuals living on the property would be unreasonable. Free efile Building in registered historic district. Free efile   A contribution after July 25, 2006, of a qualified real property interest that is an easement or other restriction on the exterior of a building in a registered historic district is deductible only if it meets all of the following three conditions. Free efile The restriction must preserve the entire exterior of the building and must prohibit any change to the exterior of the building that is inconsistent with its historical character. Free efile You and the organization receiving the contribution must enter into a written agreement certifying, that the organization is a qualified organization and that it has the resources and commitment to maintain the property as donated. Free efile If you make the contribution in a tax year beginning after August 17, 2006, you must include with your return: A qualified appraisal, Photographs of the building's entire exterior, and A description of all restrictions on development of the building, such as zoning laws and restrictive covenants. Free efile   If you make this type of contribution after February 12, 2007, and claim a deduction of more than $10,000, your deduction will not be allowed unless you pay a $500 filing fee. Free efile See Form 8283-V, Payment Voucher for Filing Fee Under Section 170(f)(13), and its instructions. Free efile Qualified real property interest. Free efile   This is any of the following interests in real property. Free efile Your entire interest in real estate other than a mineral interest (subsurface oil, gas, or other minerals, and the right of access to these minerals). Free efile A remainder interest. Free efile A restriction (granted in perpetuity) on the use that may be made of the real property. Free efile Valuation. Free efile   A qualified real property interest described in (1) should be valued in a manner that is consistent with the type of interest transferred. Free efile If you transferred all the interest in the property, the FMV of the property is the amount of the contribution. Free efile If you do not transfer the mineral interest, the FMV of the surface rights in the property is the amount of the contribution. Free efile   If you owned only a remainder interest or an income interest (life estate), see Undivided Part of Your Entire Interest, earlier. Free efile If you owned the entire property but transferred only a remainder interest (item (2)), see Remainder Interest in Real Property, earlier. Free efile   In determining the value of restrictions, you should take into account the selling price in arm's-length transactions of other properties that have comparable restrictions. Free efile If there are no comparable sales, the restrictions are valued indirectly as the difference between the FMVs of the property involved before and after the grant of the restriction. Free efile   The FMV of the property before contribution of the restriction should take into account not only current use but the likelihood that the property, without the restriction, would be developed. Free efile You should also consider any zoning, conservation, or historical preservation laws that would restrict development. Free efile Granting an easement may increase, rather than reduce, the value of property, and in such a situation no deduction would be allowed. Free efile Example. Free efile   You own 10 acres of farmland. Free efile Similar land in the area has an FMV of $2,000 an acre. Free efile However, land in the general area that is restricted solely to farm use has an FMV of $1,500 an acre. Free efile Your county wants to preserve open space and prevent further development in your area. Free efile   You grant to the county an enforceable open space easement in perpetuity on 8 of the 10 acres, restricting its use to farmland. Free efile The value of this easement is $4,000, determined as follows: FMV of the property before granting easement:   $2,000 × 10 acres $20,000 FMV of the property after granting easement:   $1,500 × 8 acres $12,000   $2,000 × 2 acres 4,000 16,000 Value of easement   $4,000   If you later transfer in fee your remaining interest in the 8 acres to another qualified organization, the FMV of your remaining interest is the FMV of the 8 acres reduced by the FMV of the easement granted to the first organization. Free efile More information. Free efile   For more information about qualified conservation contributions, see Publication 526. Free efile Appraisals Appraisals are not necessary for items of property for which you claim a deduction of $5,000 or less. Free efile (There is one exception, described next, for certain clothing and household items. Free efile ) However, you generally will need an appraisal for donated property for which you claim a deduction of more than $5,000. Free efile There are exceptions. Free efile See Deductions of More Than $5,000, later. Free efile The weight given an appraisal depends on the completeness of the report, the qualifications of the appraiser, and the appraiser's demonstrated knowledge of the donated property. Free efile An appraisal must give all the facts on which to base an intelligent judgment of the value of the property. Free efile The appraisal will not be given much weight if: All the factors that apply are not considered, The opinion is not supported with facts, such as purchase price and comparable sales, or The opinion is not consistent with known facts. Free efile The appraiser's opinion is never more valid than the facts on which it is based; without these facts it is simply a guess. Free efile The opinion of a person claiming to be an expert is not binding on the Internal Revenue Service. Free efile All facts associated with the donation must be considered. Free efile Deduction over $500 for certain clothing or household items. Free efile   You must include with your return a qualified appraisal of any single item of clothing or any household item that is not in good used condition or better, that you donated after August 17, 2006, and for which you deduct more than $500. Free efile See Household Goods and Used Clothing, earlier. Free efile Cost of appraisals. Free efile   You may not take a charitable contribution deduction for fees you pay for appraisals of your donated property. Free efile However, these fees may qualify as a miscellaneous deduction, subject to the 2% limit, on Schedule A (Form 1040) if paid to determine the amount allowable as a charitable contribution. Free efile Deductions of More Than $5,000 Generally, if the claimed deduction for an item or group of similar items of donated property is more than $5,000, you must get a qualified appraisal made by a qualified appraiser, and you must attach Section B of Form 8283 to your tax return. Free efile There are exceptions, discussed later. Free efile You should keep the appraiser's report with your written records. Free efile Records are discussed in Publication 526. Free efile The phrase “similar items” means property of the same generic category or type (whether or not donated to the same donee), such as stamp collections, coin collections, lithographs, paintings, photographs, books, nonpublicly traded stock, nonpublicly traded securities other than nonpublicly traded stock, land, buildings, clothing, jewelry, furniture, electronic equipment, household appliances, toys, everyday kitchenware, china, crystal, or silver. Free efile For example, if you give books to three schools and you deduct $2,000, $2,500, and $900, respectively, your claimed deduction is more than $5,000 for these books. Free efile You must get a qualified appraisal of the books and for each school you must attach a fully completed Form 8283, Section B, to your tax return. Free efile Exceptions. Free efile   You do not need an appraisal if the property is: Nonpublicly traded stock of $10,000 or less, A vehicle (including a car, boat, or airplane) for which your deduction is limited to the gross proceeds from its sale, Qualified intellectual property, such as a patent, Certain publicly traded securities described next, Inventory and other property donated by a corporation that are “qualified contributions” for the care of the ill, the needy, or infants, within the meaning of section 170(e)(3)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code, or Stock in trade, inventory, or property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of your trade or business. Free efile   Although an appraisal is not required for the types of property just listed, you must provide certain information about a donation of any of these types of property on Form 8283. Free efile Publicly traded securities. Free efile   Even if your claimed deduction is more than $5,000, neither a qualified appraisal nor Section B of Form 8283 is required for publicly traded securities that are: Listed on a stock exchange in which quotations are published on a daily basis, Regularly traded in a national or regional over-the-counter market for which published quotations are available, or Shares of an open-end investment company (mutual fund) for which quotations are published on a daily basis in a newspaper of general circulation throughout the United States. Free efile Publicly traded securities that meet these requirements must be reported on Form 8283, Section A. Free efile   A qualified appraisal is not required, but Form 8283, Section B, Parts I and IV, must be completed, for an issue of a security that does not meet the requirements just listed but does meet these requirements: The issue is regularly traded during the computation period (defined later) in a market for which there is an “interdealer quotation system” (defined later), The issuer or agent computes the “average trading price” (defined later) for the same issue for the computation period, The average trading price and total volume of the issue during the computation period are published in a newspaper of general circulation throughout the United States, not later than the last day of the month following the end of the calendar quarter in which the computation period ends, The issuer or agent keeps books and records that list for each transaction during the computation period the date of settlement of the transaction, the name and address of the broker or dealer making the market in which the transaction occurred, and the trading price and volume, and The issuer or agent permits the Internal Revenue Service to review the books and records described in item (4) with respect to transactions during the computation period upon receiving reasonable notice. Free efile   An interdealer quotation system is any system of general circulation to brokers and dealers that regularly disseminates quotations of obligations by two or more identified brokers or dealers who are not related to either the issuer or agent who computes the average trading price of the security. Free efile A quotation sheet prepared and distributed by a broker or dealer in the regular course of business and containing only quotations of that broker or dealer is not an interdealer quotation system. Free efile   The average trading price is the average price of all transactions (weighted by volume), other than original issue or redemption transactions, conducted through a United States office of a broker or dealer who maintains a market in the issue of the security during the computation period. Free efile Bid and asked quotations are not taken into account. Free efile   The computation period is weekly during October through December and monthly during January through September. Free efile The weekly computation periods during October through December begin with the first Monday in October and end with the first Sunday following the last Monday in December. Free efile Nonpublicly traded stock. Free efile   If you contribute nonpublicly traded stock, for which you claim a deduction of $10,000 or less, a qualified appraisal is not required. Free efile However, you must attach Form 8283 to your tax return, with Section B, Parts I and IV, completed. Free efile Deductions of More Than $500,000 If you claim a deduction of more than $500,000 for a donation of property, you must attach a qualified appraisal of the property to your return. Free efile This does not apply to contributions of cash, inventory, publicly traded stock, or intellectual property. Free efile If you do not attach the appraisal, you cannot deduct your contribution, unless your failure to attach the appraisal is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect. Free efile Qualified Appraisal Generally, if the claimed deduction for an item or group of similar items of donated property is more than $5,000, you must get a qualified appraisal made by a qualified appraiser. Free efile You must also complete Form 8283, Section B, and attach it to your tax return. Free efile See Deductions of More Than $5,000, earlier. Free efile A qualified appraisal is an appraisal document that: Is made, signed, and dated by a qualified appraiser (defined later) in accordance with generally accepted appraisal standards, Meets the relevant requirements of Regulations section 1. Free efile 170A-13(c)(3) and Notice 2006-96, 2006-46 I. Free efile R. Free efile B. Free efile 902 (available at www. Free efile irs. Free efile gov/irb/2006-46_IRB/ar13. Free efile html), Relates to an appraisal made not earlier than 60 days before the date of contribution of the appraised property, Does not involve a prohibited appraisal fee, and Includes certain information (covered later). Free efile You must receive the qualified appraisal before the due date, including extensions, of the return on which a charitable contribution deduction is first claimed for the donated property. Free efile If the deduction is first claimed on an amended return, the qualified appraisal must be received before the date on which the amended return is filed. Free efile Form 8283, Section B, must be attached to your tax return. Free efile Generally, you do not need to attach the qualified appraisal itself, but you should keep a copy as long as it may be relevant under the tax law. Free efile There are four exceptions. Free efile If you claim a deduction of $20,000 or more for donations of art, you must attach a complete copy of the appraisal. Free efile See Paintings, Antiques, and Other Objects of Art, earlier. Free efile If you claim a deduction of more than $500,000 for a donation of property, you must attach the appraisal. Free efile See Deductions of More Than $500,000, earlier. Free efile If you claim a deduction of more than $500 for an article of clothing, or a household item, that is not in good used condition or better, that you donated after August 17, 2006, you must attach the appraisal. Free efile See Deduction over $500 for certain clothing or household items, earlier. Free efile If you claim a deduction in a tax year beginning after August 17, 2006, for an easement or other restriction on the exterior of a building in a historic district, you must attach the appraisal. Free efile See Building in registered historic district, earlier. Free efile Prohibited appraisal fee. Free efile   Generally, no part of the fee arrangement for a qualified appraisal can be based on a percentage of the appraised value of the property. Free efile If a fee arrangement is based on what is allowed as a deduction, after Internal Revenue Service examination or otherwise, it is treated as a fee based on a percentage of appraised value. Free efile However, appraisals are not disqualified when an otherwise prohi
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Understanding your CP12M Notice

We made changes to the computation of the Making Work Pay and/or Government Retiree Credits on your return.

Printable samples of this notice (PDF)

Tax publications you may find useful

How to get help

Calling the 1-800 number listed on the top right corner of your notice is the fastest way to get your questions answered.

You can also authorize someone (such as an accountant) to contact the IRS on your behalf using this Power of Attorney and Declaration of Representative (Form 2848).

Or you may qualify for help from a Low Income Taxpayer Clinic.
 


What you need to do

  • Review the notice, and compare our changes to the information on your tax return.
  • If you agree with the changes we made, do nothing; you should receive a refund check in 4-6 weeks, as long as you don't owe other tax or debts we're required to collect.
  • If you don't agree, call 1-800-829-8374 to review your account or contact us by mail. Include any correspondence or documentation.

You may want to...

  • Download copies of the following materials (if they weren't included with your notice):
  • Call 1-800-TAX-FORM (1-800-829-3676) to have forms and publications mailed to you.

Answers to Common Questions

What is the Making Work Pay Credit?
The Making Work Pay Credit is a refundable tax credit that can go up to $400 for individuals and to $800 for married taxpayers.

How can taxpayers get this credit?
Even if your federal income tax withholding was reduced because of the credit, you must complete a Schedule M, Making Work Pay, and claim the credit on your income tax return to benefit from it.

What happens if I don't receive a paycheck from an employer?
You can claim the credit on your 2010 income tax return by filing a Schedule M, Making Work Pay.

What is the Government Retiree Credit?
Taxpayers can take a credit of $250 ($500 if married and both spouses qualify) if you or your spouse received a pension or annuity payment in 2010 for service performed for the U.S. Government or any U.S. state or local government, and the service was not covered by social security. But you cannot take the credit if you and your spouse both received a $250 economic recovery payment.


Tips for next year

  • In 2011, when you file your taxes for tax year 2010, complete Schedule M to see if you are eligible for the Making Work Pay and Government Retiree Credits.
  • Consider filing your taxes electronically. Filing online can help you avoid mistakes and find credits and deductions that you may qualify for. In many cases you can file for free. Learn more about e-file.
Page Last Reviewed or Updated: 19-Feb-2014

The Free Efile

Free efile Publication 547 - Introductory Material Table of Contents What's New Reminders IntroductionOrdering forms and publications. Free efile Tax questions. Free efile Useful Items - You may want to see: What's New Section C of Form 4684 for Ponzi-type investment schemes. Free efile  Section C of Form 4684 is new for 2013. Free efile You must complete Section C if you are claiming a theft loss deduction due to a Ponzi-type investment scheme and are using Revenue Procedure 2009-20, as modified by Revenue Procedure 2011-58. Free efile Section C of Form 4684 replaces Appendix A in Revenue Procedure 2009-20. Free efile You do not need to complete Appendix A. Free efile For details, see Losses from Ponzi-type investment schemes , later. Free efile Reminders Future developments. Free efile   For the latest information about developments related to Publication 547, such as legislation enacted after it was published, go to www. Free efile irs. Free efile gov/pub547. Free efile Photographs of missing children. Free efile  The Internal Revenue Service is a proud partner with the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. Free efile Photographs of missing children selected by the Center may appear in this publication on pages that would otherwise be blank. Free efile You can help bring these children home by looking at the photographs and calling 1-800-THE-LOST (1-800-843-5678) if you recognize a child. Free efile Introduction This publication explains the tax treatment of casualties, thefts, and losses on deposits. Free efile A casualty occurs when your property is damaged as a result of a disaster such as a storm, fire, car accident, or similar event. Free efile A theft occurs when someone steals your property. Free efile A loss on deposits occurs when your financial institution becomes insolvent or bankrupt. Free efile This publication discusses the following topics. Free efile Definitions of a casualty, theft, and loss on deposits. Free efile How to figure the amount of your gain or loss. Free efile How to treat insurance and other reimbursements you receive. Free efile The deduction limits. Free efile When and how to report a casualty or theft. Free efile The special rules for disaster area losses. Free efile Forms to file. Free efile   Generally, when you have a casualty or theft, you have to file Form 4684. Free efile You may also have to file one or more of the following forms. Free efile Schedule A (Form 1040). Free efile Form 1040NR, Schedule A (for nonresident aliens). Free efile Schedule D. Free efile Form 4797. Free efile For details on which form to use, see How To Report Gains and Losses , later. Free efile Condemnations. Free efile   For information on condemnations of property, see Involuntary Conversions in chapter 1 of Publication 544, Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets. Free efile Workbooks for casualties and thefts. Free efile   Publication 584, Casualty, Disaster, and Theft Loss Workbook (Personal-Use Property), is available to help you make a list of your stolen or damaged personal-use property and figure your loss. Free efile It includes schedules to help you figure the loss on your home and its contents, and your motor vehicles. Free efile   Publication 584-B, Business Casualty, Disaster, and Theft Loss Workbook, is available to help you make a list of your stolen or damaged business or income-producing property and figure your loss. Free efile Comments and suggestions. Free efile   We welcome your comments about this publication and your suggestions for future editions. Free efile   You can write to us at the following address: Internal Revenue Service Tax Forms and Publications Division 1111 Constitution Ave. Free efile NW, IR-6526 Washington, DC 20224   We respond to many letters by telephone. Free efile Therefore, it would be helpful if you would include your daytime phone number, including the area code, in your correspondence. Free efile   You can send your comments from www. Free efile irs. Free efile gov/formspubs/. Free efile Click on “More Information” and then on “Comment on Tax Forms and Publications”. Free efile   Although we cannot respond individually to each comment received, we do appreciate your feedback and will consider your comments as we revise our tax products. Free efile Ordering forms and publications. Free efile   Visit www. Free efile irs. Free efile gov/formspubs/ to download forms and publications, call 1-800-TAX-FORM (1-800-829-3676), or write to the address below and receive a response within 10 days after your request is received. Free efile Internal Revenue Service 1201 N. Free efile Mitsubishi Motorway Bloomington, IL 61705-6613 Tax questions. Free efile   If you have a tax question, check the information available on IRS. Free efile gov or call 1-800-829-1040. Free efile We cannot answer tax questions sent to either of the above addresses. Free efile Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 523 Selling Your Home 525 Taxable and Nontaxable Income 550 Investment Income and Expenses 551 Basis of Assets 584 Casualty, Disaster, and Theft Loss Workbook (Personal-Use Property) 584-B Business Casualty, Disaster, and   Theft Loss Workbook Form (and Instructions) Schedule A (Form 1040) Itemized Deductions Form 1040NR, Schedule A Itemized Deductions (for nonresident aliens) Schedule D (Form 1040) Capital Gains and Losses 4684 Casualties and Thefts 4797 Sales of Business Property See How To Get Tax Help near the end of this publication for information about getting publications and forms. Free efile Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications