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Compare State Income Taxes

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Compare State Income Taxes

Compare state income taxes Publication 537 - Introductory Material Table of Contents Future Developments Reminder IntroductionOrdering forms and publications. Compare state income taxes Tax questions. Compare state income taxes Useful Items - You may want to see: Future Developments For the latest information about developments related to Publication 537, such as legislation enacted after it was published, go to www. Compare state income taxes irs. Compare state income taxes gov/pub537. Compare state income taxes Reminder Photographs of missing children. Compare state income taxes  The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is a proud partner with the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. Compare state income taxes Photographs of missing children selected by the Center may appear in this publication on pages that would otherwise be blank. Compare state income taxes You can help bring these children home by looking at the photographs and calling 1-800-THE-LOST (1-800-843-5678) if you recognize a child. Compare state income taxes Introduction Note. Compare state income taxes Section references within this publication are to the Internal Revenue Code and regulation references are to the Income Tax Regulations under the Code. Compare state income taxes An installment sale is a sale of property where you receive at least one payment after the tax year of the sale. Compare state income taxes If you realize a gain on an installment sale, you may be able to report part of your gain when you receive each payment. Compare state income taxes This method of reporting gain is called the installment method. Compare state income taxes You cannot use the installment method to report a loss. Compare state income taxes You can choose to report all of your gain in the year of sale. Compare state income taxes This publication discusses the general rules that apply to using the installment method. Compare state income taxes It also discusses more complex rules that apply only when certain conditions exist or certain types of property are sold. Compare state income taxes If you sell your home or other nonbusiness property under an installment plan, you may need to read only the General Rules . Compare state income taxes If you sell business or rental property or have a like-kind exchange or other complex situation, also see the appropriate discussion under Other Rules . Compare state income taxes Comments and suggestions. Compare state income taxes   We welcome your comments about this publication and your suggestions for future editions. Compare state income taxes   You can write to us at the following address: Internal Revenue Service Tax Forms and Publications Division 1111 Constitution Ave. Compare state income taxes NW, IR-6526 Washington, DC 20224   We respond to many letters by telephone. Compare state income taxes Therefore, it would be helpful if you would include your daytime phone number, including the area code, in your correspondence. Compare state income taxes   You can send your comments from www. Compare state income taxes irs. Compare state income taxes gov/formspubs/. Compare state income taxes Click on “More Information” and then on “Comment on Tax Forms and Publications. Compare state income taxes ”   Although we cannot respond individually to each comment received, we do appreciate your feedback and will consider your comments as we revise our tax products. Compare state income taxes Ordering forms and publications. Compare state income taxes   Visit www. Compare state income taxes irs. Compare state income taxes gov/formspubs/ to download forms and publications, call 1-800-TAX-FORM (1-800-829-3676), or write to the address below and receive a response within 10 days after your request is received. Compare state income taxes Internal Revenue Service 1201 N. Compare state income taxes Mitsubishi Motorway Bloomington, IL 61705-6613 Tax questions. Compare state income taxes   If you have a tax question, check the information available on IRS. Compare state income taxes gov or call 1-800-829-1040. Compare state income taxes We cannot answer tax questions sent to either of the above addresses. Compare state income taxes Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 523 Selling Your Home 541 Partnerships 544 Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets 550 Investment Income and Expenses 551 Basis of Assets 4895 Tax Treatment of Property Acquired From a Decedent Dying in 2010 Form (and Instructions) 4797 Sales of Business Property 6252 Installment Sale Income  See How To Get Tax Help near the end of this publication for information about getting publications and forms. Compare state income taxes Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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The Compare State Income Taxes

Compare state income taxes 4. Compare state income taxes   Figuring Depreciation Under MACRS Table of Contents Introduction Useful Items - You may want to see: Which Depreciation System (GDS or ADS) Applies? Which Property Class Applies Under GDS?Rent-to-own dealer. Compare state income taxes Rent-to-own contract. Compare state income taxes What Is the Placed in Service Date? What Is the Basis for Depreciation? Which Recovery Period Applies?Recovery Periods Under GDS Recovery Periods Under ADS Additions and Improvements Which Convention Applies? Which Depreciation Method Applies?Depreciation Methods for Farm Property Electing a Different Method How Is the Depreciation Deduction Figured?Using the MACRS Percentage Tables Figuring the Deduction Without Using the Tables Figuring the Deduction for Property Acquired in a Nontaxable Exchange Figuring the Deduction for a Short Tax Year How Do You Use General Asset Accounts?Grouping Property Figuring Depreciation for a GAA Disposing of GAA Property Terminating GAA Treatment Electing To Use a GAA When Do You Recapture MACRS Depreciation? Introduction The Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) is used to recover the basis of most business and investment property placed in service after 1986. Compare state income taxes MACRS consists of two depreciation systems, the General Depreciation System (GDS) and the Alternative Depreciation System (ADS). Compare state income taxes Generally, these systems provide different methods and recovery periods to use in figuring depreciation deductions. Compare state income taxes To be sure you can use MACRS to figure depreciation for your property, see What Method Can You Use To Depreciate Your Property in chapter 1. Compare state income taxes This chapter explains how to determine which MACRS depreciation system applies to your property. Compare state income taxes It also discusses other information you need to know before you can figure depreciation under MACRS. Compare state income taxes This information includes the property's recovery class, placed in service date, and basis, as well as the applicable recovery period, convention, and depreciation method. Compare state income taxes It explains how to use this information to figure your depreciation deduction and how to use a general asset account to depreciate a group of properties. Compare state income taxes Finally, it explains when and how to recapture MACRS depreciation. Compare state income taxes Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 225 Farmer's Tax Guide 463 Travel, Entertainment, Gift, and Car  Expenses 544 Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets 551 Basis of Assets 587 Business Use of Your Home (Including Use by Daycare Providers) Form (and Instructions) 2106 Employee Business Expenses 2106-EZ Unreimbursed Employee Business Expenses 4562 Depreciation and Amortization See chapter 6 for information about getting publications and forms. Compare state income taxes Which Depreciation System (GDS or ADS) Applies? Your use of either the General Depreciation System (GDS) or the Alternative Depreciation System (ADS) to depreciate property under MACRS determines what depreciation method and recovery period you use. Compare state income taxes You generally must use GDS unless you are specifically required by law to use ADS or you elect to use ADS. Compare state income taxes If you placed your property in service in 2013, complete Part III of Form 4562 to report depreciation using MACRS. Compare state income taxes Complete section B of Part III to report depreciation using GDS, and complete section C of Part III to report depreciation using ADS. Compare state income taxes If you placed your property in service before 2013 and are required to file Form 4562, report depreciation using either GDS or ADS on line 17 in Part III. Compare state income taxes Required use of ADS. Compare state income taxes   You must use ADS for the following property. Compare state income taxes Listed property used 50% or less in a qualified business use. Compare state income taxes See chapter 5 for information on listed property. Compare state income taxes Any tangible property used predominantly outside the United States during the year. Compare state income taxes Any tax-exempt use property. Compare state income taxes Any tax-exempt bond-financed property. Compare state income taxes All property used predominantly in a farming business and placed in service in any tax year during which an election not to apply the uniform capitalization rules to certain farming costs is in effect. Compare state income taxes Any property imported from a foreign country for which an Executive Order is in effect because the country maintains trade restrictions or engages in other discriminatory acts. Compare state income taxes If you are required to use ADS to depreciate your property, you cannot claim any special depreciation allowance (discussed in chapter 3) for the property. Compare state income taxes Electing ADS. Compare state income taxes   Although your property may qualify for GDS, you can elect to use ADS. Compare state income taxes The election generally must cover all property in the same property class that you placed in service during the year. Compare state income taxes However, the election for residential rental property and nonresidential real property can be made on a property-by-property basis. Compare state income taxes Once you make this election, you can never revoke it. Compare state income taxes   You make the election by completing line 20 in Part III of Form 4562. Compare state income taxes Which Property Class Applies Under GDS? The following is a list of the nine property classifications under GDS and examples of the types of property included in each class. Compare state income taxes These property classes are also listed under column (a) in section B, Part III, of Form 4562. Compare state income taxes For detailed information on property classes, see Appendix B, Table of Class Lives and Recovery Periods, in this publication. Compare state income taxes 3-year property. Compare state income taxes Tractor units for over-the-road use. Compare state income taxes Any race horse over 2 years old when placed in service. Compare state income taxes (All race horses placed in service after December 31, 2008, and before January 1, 2014, are deemed to be 3-year property, regardless of age. Compare state income taxes ) Any other horse (other than a race horse) over 12 years old when placed in service. Compare state income taxes Qualified rent-to-own property (defined later). Compare state income taxes 5-year property. Compare state income taxes Automobiles, taxis, buses, and trucks. Compare state income taxes Computers and peripheral equipment. Compare state income taxes Office machinery (such as typewriters, calculators, and copiers). Compare state income taxes Any property used in research and experimentation. Compare state income taxes Breeding cattle and dairy cattle. Compare state income taxes Appliances, carpets, furniture, etc. Compare state income taxes , used in a residential rental real estate activity. Compare state income taxes Certain geothermal, solar, and wind energy property. Compare state income taxes 7-year property. Compare state income taxes Office furniture and fixtures (such as desks, files, and safes). Compare state income taxes Agricultural machinery and equipment. Compare state income taxes Any property that does not have a class life and has not been designated by law as being in any other class. Compare state income taxes Certain motorsports entertainment complex property (defined later) placed in service before January 1, 2014. Compare state income taxes Any natural gas gathering line placed in service after April 11, 2005. Compare state income taxes See Natural gas gathering line and electric transmission property , later. Compare state income taxes 10-year property. Compare state income taxes Vessels, barges, tugs, and similar water transportation equipment. Compare state income taxes Any single purpose agricultural or horticultural structure. Compare state income taxes Any tree or vine bearing fruits or nuts. Compare state income taxes Qualified small electric meter and qualified smart electric grid system (defined later) placed in service on or after October 3, 2008. Compare state income taxes 15-year property. Compare state income taxes Certain improvements made directly to land or added to it (such as shrubbery, fences, roads, sidewalks, and bridges). Compare state income taxes Any retail motor fuels outlet (defined later), such as a convenience store. Compare state income taxes Any municipal wastewater treatment plant. Compare state income taxes Any qualified leasehold improvement property (defined later) placed in service before January 1, 2014. Compare state income taxes Any qualified restaurant property (defined later) placed in service before January 1, 2014. Compare state income taxes Initial clearing and grading land improvements for gas utility property. Compare state income taxes Electric transmission property (that is section 1245 property) used in the transmission at 69 or more kilovolts of electricity placed in service after April 11, 2005. Compare state income taxes See Natural gas gathering line and electric transmission property , later. Compare state income taxes Any natural gas distribution line placed in service after April 11, 2005 and before January 1, 2011. Compare state income taxes Any qualified retail improvement property placed in service before January 1, 2014. Compare state income taxes 20-year property. Compare state income taxes Farm buildings (other than single purpose agricultural or horticultural structures). Compare state income taxes Municipal sewers not classified as 25-year property. Compare state income taxes Initial clearing and grading land improvements for electric utility transmission and distribution plants. Compare state income taxes 25-year property. Compare state income taxes This class is water utility property, which is either of the following. Compare state income taxes Property that is an integral part of the gathering, treatment, or commercial distribution of water, and that, without regard to this provision, would be 20-year property. Compare state income taxes Municipal sewers other than property placed in service under a binding contract in effect at all times since June 9, 1996. Compare state income taxes Residential rental property. Compare state income taxes This is any building or structure, such as a rental home (including a mobile home), if 80% or more of its gross rental income for the tax year is from dwelling units. Compare state income taxes A dwelling unit is a house or apartment used to provide living accommodations in a building or structure. Compare state income taxes It does not include a unit in a hotel, motel, or other establishment where more than half the units are used on a transient basis. Compare state income taxes If you occupy any part of the building or structure for personal use, its gross rental income includes the fair rental value of the part you occupy. Compare state income taxes Nonresidential real property. Compare state income taxes This is section 1250 property, such as an office building, store, or warehouse, that is neither residential rental property nor property with a class life of less than 27. Compare state income taxes 5 years. Compare state income taxes Qualified rent-to-own property. Compare state income taxes   Qualified rent-to-own property is property held by a rent-to-own dealer for purposes of being subject to a rent-to-own contract. Compare state income taxes It is tangible personal property generally used in the home for personal use. Compare state income taxes It includes computers and peripheral equipment, televisions, videocassette recorders, stereos, camcorders, appliances, furniture, washing machines and dryers, refrigerators, and other similar consumer durable property. Compare state income taxes Consumer durable property does not include real property, aircraft, boats, motor vehicles, or trailers. Compare state income taxes   If some of the property you rent to others under a rent-to-own agreement is of a type that may be used by the renters for either personal or business purposes, you still can treat this property as qualified property as long as it does not represent a significant portion of your leasing property. Compare state income taxes However, if this dual-use property does represent a significant portion of your leasing property, you must prove that this property is qualified rent-to-own property. Compare state income taxes Rent-to-own dealer. Compare state income taxes   You are a rent-to-own dealer if you meet all the following requirements. Compare state income taxes You regularly enter into rent-to-own contracts (defined below) in the ordinary course of your business for the use of consumer property. Compare state income taxes A substantial portion of these contracts end with the customer returning the property before making all the payments required to transfer ownership. Compare state income taxes The property is tangible personal property of a type generally used within the home for personal use. Compare state income taxes Rent-to-own contract. Compare state income taxes   This is any lease for the use of consumer property between a rent-to-own dealer and a customer who is an individual which— Is titled “Rent-to-Own Agreement,” “Lease Agreement with Ownership Option,” or other similar language. Compare state income taxes Provides a beginning date and a maximum period of time, not to exceed 156 weeks or 36 months from the beginning date, for which the contract can be in effect (including renewals or options to extend). Compare state income taxes Provides for regular periodic (weekly or monthly) payments that can be either level or decreasing. Compare state income taxes If the payments are decreasing, no payment can be less than 40% of the largest payment. Compare state income taxes Provides for total payments that generally exceed the normal retail price of the property plus interest. Compare state income taxes Provides for total payments that do not exceed $10,000 for each item of property. Compare state income taxes Provides that the customer has no legal obligation to make all payments outlined in the contract and that, at the end of each weekly or monthly payment period, the customer can either continue to use the property by making the next payment or return the property in good working order with no further obligations and no entitlement to a return of any prior payments. Compare state income taxes Provides that legal title to the property remains with the rent-to-own dealer until the customer makes either all the required payments or the early purchase payments required under the contract to acquire legal title. Compare state income taxes Provides that the customer has no right to sell, sublease, mortgage, pawn, pledge, or otherwise dispose of the property until all contract payments have been made. Compare state income taxes Motorsports entertainment complex. Compare state income taxes   This is a racing track facility permanently situated on land that hosts one or more racing events for automobiles, trucks, or motorcycles during the 36-month period after the first day of the month in which the facility is placed in service. Compare state income taxes The events must be open to the public for the price of admission. Compare state income taxes Qualified smart electric grid system. Compare state income taxes   A qualified smart electric grid system means any smart grid property used as part of a system for electric distribution grid communications, monitoring, and management placed in service after October 3, 2008, by a taxpayer who is a supplier of electrical energy or a provider of electrical energy services. Compare state income taxes Smart grid property includes electronics and related equipment that is capable of: Sensing, collecting, and monitoring data of or from all portions of a utility's electric distribution grid, Providing real-time, two-way communications to monitor or to manage the grid, and Providing real-time analysis of an event prediction based on collected data that can be used to provide electric distribution system reliability, quality, and performance. Compare state income taxes Retail motor fuels outlet. Compare state income taxes   Real property is a retail motor fuels outlet if it is used to a substantial extent in the retail marketing of petroleum or petroleum products (whether or not it is also used to sell food or other convenience items) and meets any one of the following three tests. Compare state income taxes It is not larger than 1,400 square feet. Compare state income taxes 50% or more of the gross revenues generated from the property are derived from petroleum sales. Compare state income taxes 50% or more of the floor space in the property is devoted to petroleum marketing sales. Compare state income taxes A retail motor fuels outlet does not include any facility related to petroleum and natural gas trunk pipelines. Compare state income taxes Qualified leasehold improvement property. Compare state income taxes    Generally, this is any improvement to an interior part of a building (placed in service before January 1, 2014) that is nonresidential real property, provided all of the requirements discussed in chapter 3 under Qualified leasehold improvement property are met. Compare state income taxes   In addition, an improvement made by the lessor does not qualify as qualified leasehold improvement property to any subsequent owner unless it is acquired from the original lessor by reason of the lessor's death or in any of the following types of transactions. Compare state income taxes A transaction to which section 381(a) applies, A mere change in the form of conducting the trade or business so long as the property is retained in the trade or business as qualified leasehold improvement property and the taxpayer retains a substantial interest in the trade or business, A like-kind exchange, involuntary conversion, or reacquisition of real property to the extent that the basis in the property represents the carryover basis, or Certain nonrecognition transactions to the extent that your basis in the property is determined by reference to the transferor's or distributor's basis in the property. Compare state income taxes Examples include the following. Compare state income taxes A complete liquidation of a subsidiary. Compare state income taxes A transfer to a corporation controlled by the transferor. Compare state income taxes An exchange of property by a corporation solely for stock or securities in another corporation in a reorganization. Compare state income taxes Qualified restaurant property. Compare state income taxes   Qualified restaurant property is any section 1250 property that is a building placed in service after December 31, 2008, and before January 1, 2014. Compare state income taxes Also, more than 50% of the building's square footage must be devoted to preparation of meals and seating for on-premises consumption of prepared meals. Compare state income taxes Qualified smart electric meter. Compare state income taxes   A qualified smart electric meter is any time-based meter and related communication equipment which is placed in service by a supplier of electric energy or a provider of electric energy services and which is capable of being used by you as part of a system that: Measures and records electricity usage data on a time-differentiated basis in at least 24 separate time segments per day; Provides for the exchange of information between the supplier or provider and the customer's smart electric meter in support of time-based rates or other forms of demand response; Provides data to the supplier or provider so that the supplier or provider can provide energy usage information to customers electronically, and Provides all commercial and residential customers of such supplier or provider with net metering. Compare state income taxes Net metering means allowing a customer a credit, if any, as complies with applicable federal and state laws and regulations for providing electricity to the supplier or provider. Compare state income taxes Natural gas gathering line and electric transmission property. Compare state income taxes   Any natural gas gathering line placed in service after April 11, 2005, is treated as 7-year property, and electric transmission property (that is section 1245 property) used in the transmission at 69 or more kilovolts of electricity and any natural gas distribution line placed in service after April 11, 2005, are treated as 15-year property, if the following requirements are met. Compare state income taxes The original use of the property must have begun with you after April 11, 2005. Compare state income taxes Original use means the first use to which the property is put, whether or not by you. Compare state income taxes Therefore, property used by any person before April 12, 2005, is not original use. Compare state income taxes Original use includes additional capital expenditures you incurred to recondition or rebuild your property. Compare state income taxes However, original use does not include the cost of reconditioned or rebuilt property you acquired. Compare state income taxes Property containing used parts will not be treated as reconditioned or rebuilt if the cost of the used parts is not more than 20% of the total cost of the property. Compare state income taxes The property must not be placed in service under a binding contract in effect before April 12, 2005. Compare state income taxes The property must not be self-constructed property (property you manufacture, construct, or produce for your own use), if you began the manufacture, construction, or production of the property before April 12, 2005. Compare state income taxes Property that is manufactured, constructed, or produced for your use by another person under a written binding contract entered into by you or a related party before the manufacture, construction, or production of the property is considered to be manufactured, constructed, or produced by you. Compare state income taxes What Is the Placed in Service Date? You begin to claim depreciation when your property is placed in service for either use in a trade or business or the production of income. Compare state income taxes The placed in service date for your property is the date the property is ready and available for a specific use. Compare state income taxes It is therefore not necessarily the date it is first used. Compare state income taxes If you converted property held for personal use to use in a trade or business or for the production of income, treat the property as being placed in service on the conversion date. Compare state income taxes See Placed in Service under When Does Depreciation Begin and End in chapter 1 for examples illustrating when property is placed in service. Compare state income taxes What Is the Basis for Depreciation? The basis for depreciation of MACRS property is the property's cost or other basis multiplied by the percentage of business/investment use. Compare state income taxes For a discussion of business/investment use, see Partial business or investment use under Property Used in Your Business or Income-Producing Activity in chapter 1 . Compare state income taxes Reduce that amount by any credits and deductions allocable to the property. Compare state income taxes The following are examples of some credits and deductions that reduce basis. Compare state income taxes Any deduction for section 179 property. Compare state income taxes Any deduction under section 179B of the Internal Revenue Code for capital costs to comply with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations. Compare state income taxes Any deduction under section 179C of the Internal Revenue Code for certain qualified refinery property placed in service after August 8, 2005, and before January 1, 2014. Compare state income taxes Any deduction under section 179D of the Internal Revenue Code for certain energy efficient commercial building property placed in service after December 31, 2005, and before January 1, 2014. Compare state income taxes Any deduction under section 179E of the Internal Revenue Code for qualified advanced mine safety equipment property placed in service after December 20, 2006, and before January 1, 2014 . Compare state income taxes Any deduction for removal of barriers to the disabled and the elderly. Compare state income taxes Any disabled access credit, enhanced oil recovery credit, and credit for employer-provided childcare facilities and services. Compare state income taxes Any special depreciation allowance. Compare state income taxes Basis adjustment for investment credit property under section 50(c) of the Internal Revenue Code. Compare state income taxes For additional credits and deductions that affect basis, see section 1016 of the Internal Revenue Code. Compare state income taxes Enter the basis for depreciation under column (c) in Part III of Form 4562. Compare state income taxes For information about how to determine the cost or other basis of property, see What Is the Basis of Your Depreciable Property in chapter 1 . Compare state income taxes Which Recovery Period Applies? The recovery period of property is the number of years over which you recover its cost or other basis. Compare state income taxes It is determined based on the depreciation system (GDS or ADS) used. Compare state income taxes Recovery Periods Under GDS Under GDS, property that is not qualified Indian reservation property is depreciated over one of the following recovery periods. Compare state income taxes Property Class Recovery Period 3-year property   3 years 1   5-year property   5 years     7-year property   7 years     10-year property   10 years     15-year property   15 years 2   20-year property   20 years     25-year property   25 years 3   Residential rental property   27. Compare state income taxes 5 years     Nonresidential real property   39 years 4   15 years for qualified rent-to-own property placed in service before August 6, 1997. Compare state income taxes 239 years for property that is a retail motor fuels outlet placed in service before August 20, 1996 (31. Compare state income taxes 5 years if placed in service before May 13, 1993), unless you elected to depreciate it over 15 years. Compare state income taxes 320 years for property placed in service before June 13, 1996, or under a binding contract in effect before June 10, 1996. Compare state income taxes 431. Compare state income taxes 5 years for property placed in service before May 13, 1993 (or before January 1, 1994, if the purchase or construction of the property is under a binding contract in effect before May 13, 1993, or if construction began before May 13, 1993). Compare state income taxes The GDS recovery periods for property not listed above can be found in Appendix B, Table of Class Lives and Recovery Periods. Compare state income taxes Residential rental property and nonresidential real property are defined earlier under Which Depreciation System (GDS or ADS) Applies. Compare state income taxes Enter the appropriate recovery period on Form 4562 under column (d) in section B of Part III, unless already shown (for 25-year property, residential rental property, and nonresidential real property). Compare state income taxes Office in the home. Compare state income taxes   If your home is a personal-use single family residence and you begin to use part of your home as an office, depreciate that part of your home as nonresidential real property over 39 years (31. Compare state income taxes 5 years if you began using it for business before May 13, 1993). Compare state income taxes However, if your home is an apartment in an apartment building that you own and the building is residential rental property as defined earlier under Which Depreciation System (GDS or ADS) Applies , depreciate the part used as an office as residential rental property over 27. Compare state income taxes 5 years. Compare state income taxes See Publication 587 for a discussion of the tests you must meet to claim expenses, including depreciation, for the business use of your home. Compare state income taxes Home changed to rental use. Compare state income taxes   If you begin to rent a home that was your personal home before 1987, you depreciate it as residential rental property over 27. Compare state income taxes 5 years. Compare state income taxes Indian Reservation Property The recovery periods for qualified property you placed in service on an Indian reservation after 1993 and before 2014 are shorter than those listed earlier. Compare state income taxes The following table shows these shorter recovery periods. Compare state income taxes Property Class Recovery  Period 3-year property 2 years 5-year property 3 years 7-year property 4 years 10-year property 6 years 15-year property 9 years 20-year property 12 years Nonresidential real property 22 years Nonresidential real property is defined earlier under Which Property Class Applies Under GDS . Compare state income taxes Use this chart to find the correct percentage table to use for qualified Indian reservation property. Compare state income taxes IF your recovery period is: THEN use the following table in Appendix A: 2 years A-21 3 years A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4, or A-5 4 years A-22 6 years A-23 9 years A-14, A-15, A-16, A-17, or A-18 12 years A-14, A-15, A-16, A-17, or A-18 22 years A-24 Qualified property. Compare state income taxes   Property eligible for the shorter recovery periods are 3-, 5-, 7-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year property and nonresidential real property. Compare state income taxes You must use this property predominantly in the active conduct of a trade or business within an Indian reservation. Compare state income taxes The rental of real property that is located on an Indian reservation is treated as the active conduct of a trade or business within an Indian reservation. Compare state income taxes   The following property is not qualified property. Compare state income taxes Property used or located outside an Indian reservation on a regular basis, other than qualified infrastructure property. Compare state income taxes Property acquired directly or indirectly from a related person. Compare state income taxes Property placed in service for purposes of conducting or housing class I, II, or III gaming activities. Compare state income taxes These activities are defined in section 4 of the Indian Regulatory Act (25 U. Compare state income taxes S. Compare state income taxes C. Compare state income taxes 2703). Compare state income taxes Any property you must depreciate under ADS. Compare state income taxes Determine whether property is qualified without regard to the election to use ADS and after applying the special rules for listed property not used predominantly for qualified business use (discussed in chapter 5). Compare state income taxes Qualified infrastructure property. Compare state income taxes   Item (1) above does not apply to qualified infrastructure property located outside the reservation that is used to connect with qualified infrastructure property within the reservation. Compare state income taxes Qualified infrastructure property is property that meets all the following rules. Compare state income taxes It is qualified property, as defined earlier, except that it is outside the reservation. Compare state income taxes It benefits the tribal infrastructure. Compare state income taxes It is available to the general public. Compare state income taxes It is placed in service in connection with the active conduct of a trade or business within a reservation. Compare state income taxes Infrastructure property includes, but is not limited to, roads, power lines, water systems, railroad spurs, and communications facilities. Compare state income taxes Related person. Compare state income taxes   For purposes of item (2) above, see Related persons in the discussion on property owned or used in 1986 under What Method Can You Use To Depreciate Your Property in chapter 1 for a description of related persons. Compare state income taxes Indian reservation. Compare state income taxes   The term Indian reservation means a reservation as defined in section 3(d) of the Indian Financing Act of 1974 (25 U. Compare state income taxes S. Compare state income taxes C. Compare state income taxes 1452(d)) or section 4(10) of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (25 U. Compare state income taxes S. Compare state income taxes C. Compare state income taxes 1903(10)). Compare state income taxes Section 3(d) of the Indian Financing Act of 1974 defines reservation to include former Indian reservations in Oklahoma. Compare state income taxes For a definition of the term “former Indian reservations in Oklahoma,” see Notice 98-45 in Internal Revenue Bulletin 1998-35. Compare state income taxes Recovery Periods Under ADS The recovery periods for most property generally are longer under ADS than they are under GDS. Compare state income taxes The following table shows some of the ADS recovery periods. Compare state income taxes Property Recovery  Period Rent-to-own property 4 years Automobiles and light duty trucks 5 years Computers and peripheral equipment 5 years High technology telephone station equipment installed on customer premises 5 years High technology medical equipment 5 years Personal property with no class life 12 years Natural gas gathering lines 14 years Single purpose agricultural and horticultural structures 15 years Any tree or vine bearing fruit or nuts 20 years Initial clearing and grading land  improvements for gas utility property 20 years Initial clearing and grading land  improvements for electric utility  transmission and distribution plants 25 years Electric transmission property used in the transmission at 69 or more kilovolts of electricity 30 years Natural gas distribution lines 35 years Any qualified leasehold improvement property 39 years Any qualified restaurant property 39 years Nonresidential real property 40 years Residential rental property 40 years Section 1245 real property not listed in Appendix B 40 years Railroad grading and tunnel bore 50 years The ADS recovery periods for property not listed above can be found in the tables in Appendix B. Compare state income taxes Rent-to-own property, qualified leasehold improvement property, qualified restaurant property, residential rental property, and nonresidential real property are defined earlier under Which Property Class Applies Under GDS . Compare state income taxes Tax-exempt use property subject to a lease. Compare state income taxes   The ADS recovery period for any property leased under a lease agreement to a tax-exempt organization, governmental unit, or foreign person or entity (other than a partnership) cannot be less than 125% of the lease term. Compare state income taxes Additions and Improvements An addition or improvement you make to depreciable property is treated as separate depreciable property. Compare state income taxes See How Do You Treat Repairs and Improvements in chapter 1 for a definition of improvements. Compare state income taxes Its property class and recovery period are the same as those that would apply to the original property if you had placed it in service at the same time you placed the addition or improvement in service. Compare state income taxes The recovery period begins on the later of the following dates. Compare state income taxes The date you place the addition or improvement in service. Compare state income taxes The date you place in service the property to which you made the addition or improvement. Compare state income taxes If the improvement you make is qualified leasehold improvement property, qualified restaurant property, or qualified retail improvement property, the GDS recovery period is 15 years (39 years under ADS). Compare state income taxes Example. Compare state income taxes You own a rental home that you have been renting out since 1981. Compare state income taxes If you put an addition on the home and place the addition in service this year, you would use MACRS to figure your depreciation deduction for the addition. Compare state income taxes Under GDS, the property class for the addition is residential rental property and its recovery period is 27. Compare state income taxes 5 years because the home to which the addition is made would be residential rental property if you had placed it in service this year. Compare state income taxes Which Convention Applies? Under MACRS, averaging conventions establish when the recovery period begins and ends. Compare state income taxes The convention you use determines the number of months for which you can claim depreciation in the year you place property in service and in the year you dispose of the property. Compare state income taxes The mid-month convention. Compare state income taxes   Use this convention for nonresidential real property, residential rental property, and any railroad grading or tunnel bore. Compare state income taxes   Under this convention, you treat all property placed in service or disposed of during a month as placed in service or disposed of at the midpoint of the month. Compare state income taxes This means that a one-half month of depreciation is allowed for the month the property is placed in service or disposed of. Compare state income taxes   Your use of the mid-month convention is indicated by the “MM” already shown under column (e) in Part III of Form 4562. Compare state income taxes The mid-quarter convention. Compare state income taxes   Use this convention if the mid-month convention does not apply and the total depreciable bases of MACRS property you placed in service during the last 3 months of the tax year (excluding nonresidential real property, residential rental property, any railroad grading or tunnel bore, property placed in service and disposed of in the same year, and property that is being depreciated under a method other than MACRS) are more than 40% of the total depreciable bases of all MACRS property you placed in service during the entire year. Compare state income taxes   Under this convention, you treat all property placed in service or disposed of during any quarter of the tax year as placed in service or disposed of at the midpoint of that quarter. Compare state income taxes This means that 1½ months of depreciation is allowed for the quarter the property is placed in service or disposed of. Compare state income taxes   If you use this convention, enter “MQ” under column (e) in Part III of Form 4562. Compare state income taxes    For purposes of determining whether the mid-quarter convention applies, the depreciable basis of property you placed in service during the tax year reflects the reduction in basis for amounts expensed under section 179 and the part of the basis of property attributable to personal use. Compare state income taxes However, it does not reflect any reduction in basis for any special depreciation allowance. Compare state income taxes The half-year convention. Compare state income taxes   Use this convention if neither the mid-quarter convention nor the mid-month convention applies. Compare state income taxes   Under this convention, you treat all property placed in service or disposed of during a tax year as placed in service or disposed of at the midpoint of the year. Compare state income taxes This means that a one-half year of depreciation is allowed for the year the property is placed in service or disposed of. Compare state income taxes   If you use this convention, enter “HY” under column (e) in Part III of Form 4562. Compare state income taxes Which Depreciation Method Applies? MACRS provides three depreciation methods under GDS and one depreciation method under ADS. Compare state income taxes The 200% declining balance method over a GDS recovery period. Compare state income taxes The 150% declining balance method over a GDS recovery period. Compare state income taxes The straight line method over a GDS recovery period. Compare state income taxes The straight line method over an ADS recovery period. Compare state income taxes For property placed in service before 1999, you could have elected the 150% declining balance method using the ADS recovery periods for certain property classes. Compare state income taxes If you made this election, continue to use the same method and recovery period for that property. Compare state income taxes Table 4–1 lists the types of property you can depreciate under each method. Compare state income taxes It also gives a brief explanation of the method, including any benefits that may apply. Compare state income taxes Depreciation Methods for Farm Property If you place personal property in service in a farming business after 1988, you generally must depreciate it under GDS using the 150% declining balance method unless you are a farmer who must depreciate the property under ADS using the straight line method or you elect to depreciate the property under GDS or ADS using the straight line method. Compare state income taxes You can depreciate real property using the straight line method under either GDS or ADS. Compare state income taxes Fruit or nut trees and vines. Compare state income taxes   Depreciate trees and vines bearing fruit or nuts under GDS using the straight line method over a recovery period of 10 years. Compare state income taxes ADS required for some farmers. Compare state income taxes   If you elect not to apply the uniform capitalization rules to any plant produced in your farming business, you must use ADS. Compare state income taxes You must use ADS for all property you place in service in any year the election is in effect. Compare state income taxes See the regulations under section 263A of the Internal Revenue Code for information on the uniform capitalization rules that apply to farm property. Compare state income taxes Electing a Different Method As shown in Table 4–1 , you can elect a different method for depreciation for certain types of property. Compare state income taxes You must make the election by the due date of the return (including extensions) for the year you placed the property in service. Compare state income taxes However, if you timely filed your return for the year without making the election, you still can make the election by filing an amended return within 6 months of the due date of the return (excluding extensions). Compare state income taxes Attach the election to the amended return and write “Filed pursuant to section 301. Compare state income taxes 9100-2” on the election statement. Compare state income taxes File the amended return at the same address you filed the original return. Compare state income taxes Once you make the election, you cannot change it. Compare state income taxes If you elect to use a different method for one item in a property class, you must apply the same method to all property in that class placed in service during the year of the election. Compare state income taxes However, you can make the election on a property-by-property basis for nonresidential real and residential rental property. Compare state income taxes 150% election. Compare state income taxes   Instead of using the 200% declining balance method over the GDS recovery period for nonfarm property in the 3-, 5-, 7-, and 10-year property classes, you can elect to use the 150% declining balance method. Compare state income taxes Make the election by entering “150 DB” under column (f) in Part III of Form 4562. Compare state income taxes Straight line election. Compare state income taxes   Instead of using either the 200% or 150% declining balance methods over the GDS recovery period, you can elect to use the straight line method over the GDS recovery period. Compare state income taxes Make the election by entering  “S/L” under column (f) in Part III of Form 4562. Compare state income taxes Election of ADS. Compare state income taxes   As explained earlier under Which Depreciation System (GDS or ADS) Applies , you can elect to use ADS even though your property may come under GDS. Compare state income taxes ADS uses the straight line method of depreciation over fixed ADS recovery periods. Compare state income taxes Most ADS recovery periods are listed in Appendix B, or see the table under Recovery Periods Under ADS , earlier. Compare state income taxes   Make the election by completing line 20 in Part III of Form 4562. Compare state income taxes Farm property. Compare state income taxes   Instead of using the 150% declining balance method over a GDS recovery period for property you use in a farming business (other than real property), you can elect to depreciate it using either of the following methods. Compare state income taxes The straight line method over a GDS recovery period. Compare state income taxes The straight line method over an ADS recovery period. Compare state income taxes Table 4-1. Compare state income taxes Depreciation Methods Note. Compare state income taxes The declining balance method is abbreviated as DB and the straight line method is abbreviated as SL. Compare state income taxes Method Type of Property Benefit GDS using 200% DB • Nonfarm 3-, 5-, 7-, and 10-year property • Provides a greater deduction during the earlier recovery years • Changes to SL when that method provides an equal or greater deduction GDS using 150% DB • All farm property (except real property) • All 15- and 20-year property (except qualified leasehold improvement property, qualified restaurant property, and qualified retail improvement property placed in service before January 1, 2014) • Nonfarm 3-, 5-, 7-, and 10-year property • Provides a greater deduction during the earlier recovery years • Changes to SL when that method provides an equal or greater deduction1 GDS using SL • Nonresidential real property • Qualified leasehold improvement property placed in service before January 1, 2014 • Qualified restaurant property placed in service before January 1, 2014 • Qualified retail improvement property placed in service before January 1, 2014 • Residential rental property • Trees or vines bearing fruit or nuts • Water utility property • All 3-, 5-, 7-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year property2 • Property for which you elected section 168(k)(4) • Provides for equal yearly deductions (except for the first and last years) ADS using SL • Listed property used 50% or less for business • Property used predominantly outside the U. Compare state income taxes S. Compare state income taxes  • Tax-exempt property • Tax-exempt bond-financed property • Farm property used when an election not to apply the uniform capitalization rules is in effect • Imported property3 • Any property for which you elect to use this method4 • Provides for equal yearly deductions (except for the first and last years) 1The MACRS percentage tables in Appendix A have the switch to the straight line method built into their rates 2See section 168(b)(5) of the Internal Revenue Code. Compare state income taxes 3See section 168(g)(6) of the Internal Revenue Code 4See section 168(g)(7) of the Internal Revenue Code How Is the Depreciation Deduction Figured? To figure your depreciation deduction under MACRS, you first determine the depreciation system, property class, placed in service date, basis amount, recovery period, convention, and depreciation method that applies to your property. Compare state income taxes Then, you are ready to figure your depreciation deduction. Compare state income taxes You can figure it using a percentage table provided by the IRS, or you can figure it yourself without using the table. Compare state income taxes Using the MACRS Percentage Tables To help you figure your deduction under MACRS, the IRS has established percentage tables that incorporate the applicable convention and depreciation method. Compare state income taxes These percentage tables are in Appendix A near the end of this publication. Compare state income taxes Which table to use. Compare state income taxes    Appendix A contains the MACRS Percentage Table Guide, which is designed to help you locate the correct percentage table to use for depreciating your property. Compare state income taxes The percentage tables immediately follow the guide. Compare state income taxes Rules Covering the Use of the Tables The following rules cover the use of the percentage tables. Compare state income taxes You must apply the rates in the percentage tables to your property's unadjusted basis. Compare state income taxes You cannot use the percentage tables for a short tax year. Compare state income taxes See Figuring the Deduction for a Short Tax Year, later, for information on the short tax year rules. Compare state income taxes Once you start using the percentage tables for any item of property, you generally must continue to use them for the entire recovery period of the property. Compare state income taxes You must stop using the tables if you adjust the basis of the property for any reason other than— Depreciation allowed or allowable, or An addition or improvement to that property that is depreciated as a separate item of property. Compare state income taxes Basis adjustments other than those made due to the items listed in (4) include an increase in basis for the recapture of a clean-fuel deduction or credit and a reduction in basis for a casualty loss. Compare state income taxes Basis adjustment due to recapture of clean-fuel vehicle deduction or credit. Compare state income taxes   If you increase the basis of your property because of the recapture of part or all of a deduction for clean-fuel vehicles or the credit for clean-fuel vehicle refueling property placed in service before January 1, 2006, you cannot continue to use the percentage tables. Compare state income taxes For the year of the adjustment and the remaining recovery period, you must figure the depreciation deduction yourself using the property's adjusted basis at the end of the year. Compare state income taxes See Figuring the Deduction Without Using the Tables, later. Compare state income taxes Basis adjustment due to casualty loss. Compare state income taxes   If you reduce the basis of your property because of a casualty, you cannot continue to use the percentage tables. Compare state income taxes For the year of the adjustment and the remaining recovery period, you must figure the depreciation yourself using the property's adjusted basis at the end of the year. Compare state income taxes See Figuring the Deduction Without Using the Tables, later. Compare state income taxes Example. Compare state income taxes On October 26, 2012, Sandra Elm, a calendar year taxpayer, bought and placed in service in her business a new item of 7-year property. Compare state income taxes It cost $39,000 and she elected a section 179 deduction of $24,000. Compare state income taxes She also took a special depreciation allowance of $7,500 [50% of $15,000 ($39,000 − $24,000)]. Compare state income taxes Her unadjusted basis after the section 179 deduction and special depreciation allowance was $7,500 ($15,000 − $7,500). Compare state income taxes She figured her MACRS depreciation deduction using the percentage tables. Compare state income taxes For 2012, her MACRS depreciation deduction was $268. Compare state income taxes In July 2013, the property was vandalized and Sandra had a deductible casualty loss of $3,000. Compare state income taxes She must adjust the property's basis for the casualty loss, so she can no longer use the percentage tables. Compare state income taxes Her adjusted basis at the end of 2013, before figuring her 2013 depreciation, is $4,232. Compare state income taxes She figures that amount by subtracting the 2012 MACRS depreciation of $268 and the casualty loss of $3,000 from the unadjusted basis of $7,500. Compare state income taxes She must now figure her depreciation for 2013 without using the percentage tables. Compare state income taxes Figuring the Unadjusted Basis of Your Property You must apply the table rates to your property's unadjusted basis each year of the recovery period. Compare state income taxes Unadjusted basis is the same basis amount you would use to figure gain on a sale, but you figure it without reducing your original basis by any MACRS depreciation taken in earlier years. Compare state income taxes However, you do reduce your original basis by other amounts, including the following. Compare state income taxes Any amortization taken on the property. Compare state income taxes Any section 179 deduction claimed. Compare state income taxes Any special depreciation allowance taken on the property. Compare state income taxes For business property you purchase during the year, the unadjusted basis is its cost minus these and other applicable adjustments. Compare state income taxes If you trade property, your unadjusted basis in the property received is the cash paid plus the adjusted basis of the property traded minus these adjustments. Compare state income taxes MACRS Worksheet You can use this worksheet to help you figure your depreciation deduction using the percentage tables. Compare state income taxes Use a separate worksheet for each item of property. Compare state income taxes Then, use the information from this worksheet to prepare Form 4562. Compare state income taxes Do not use this worksheet for automobiles. Compare state income taxes Use the Depreciation Worksheet for Passenger Automobiles in chapter 5. Compare state income taxes MACRS Worksheet Part I   1. Compare state income taxes MACRS system (GDS or ADS)   2. Compare state income taxes Property class   3. Compare state income taxes Date placed in service   4. Compare state income taxes Recovery period   5. Compare state income taxes Method and convention   6. Compare state income taxes Depreciation rate (from tables)   Part II   7. Compare state income taxes Cost or other basis* $     8. Compare state income taxes Business/investment use   %   9. Compare state income taxes Multiply line 7 by line 8   $ 10. Compare state income taxes Total claimed for section 179 deduction and other items   $ 11. Compare state income taxes Subtract line 10 from line 9. Compare state income taxes This is your tentative basis for depreciation   $ 12. Compare state income taxes Multiply line 11 by . Compare state income taxes 50 if the 50% special depreciation allowance applies. Compare state income taxes This is your special depreciation allowance. Compare state income taxes Enter -0- if this is not the year you placed the property in service, the property is not qualified property, or you elected not to claim a special allowance   $ 13. Compare state income taxes Subtract line 12 from line 11. Compare state income taxes This is your basis for depreciation     14. Compare state income taxes Depreciation rate (from line 6)     15. Compare state income taxes Multiply line 13 by line 14. Compare state income taxes This is your MACRS depreciation deduction   $ *If real estate, do not include cost (basis) of land. Compare state income taxes The following example shows how to figure your MACRS depreciation deduction using the percentage tables and the MACRS worksheet. Compare state income taxes Example. Compare state income taxes You bought office furniture (7-year property) for $10,000 and placed it in service on August 11, 2013. Compare state income taxes You use the furniture only for business. Compare state income taxes This is the only property you placed in service this year. Compare state income taxes You did not elect a section 179 deduction and the property is not qualified property for purposes of claiming a special depreciation allowance so your property's unadjusted basis is its cost, $10,000. Compare state income taxes You use GDS and the half-year convention to figure your depreciation. Compare state income taxes You refer to the MACRS Percentage Table Guide in Appendix A and find that you should use Table A-1. Compare state income taxes Multiply your property's unadjusted basis each year by the percentage for 7-year property given in Table A-1. Compare state income taxes You figure your depreciation deduction using the MACRS worksheet as follows. Compare state income taxes MACRS Worksheet Part I 1. Compare state income taxes MACRS system (GDS or ADS) GDS 2. Compare state income taxes Property class 7-year 3. Compare state income taxes Date placed in service 8/11/13 4. Compare state income taxes Recovery period 7-Year 5. Compare state income taxes Method and convention 200%DB/Half-Year 6. Compare state income taxes Depreciation rate (from tables) . Compare state income taxes 1429 Part II 7. Compare state income taxes Cost or other basis* $10,000     8. Compare state income taxes Business/investment use 100 %   9. Compare state income taxes Multiply line 7 by line 8   $10,000 10. Compare state income taxes Total claimed for section 179 deduction and other items   -0- 11. Compare state income taxes Subtract line 10 from line 9. Compare state income taxes This is your tentative basis for depreciation   $10,000 12. Compare state income taxes Multiply line 11 by . Compare state income taxes 50 if the 50% special depreciation allowance applies. Compare state income taxes This is your special depreciation allowance. Compare state income taxes Enter -0- if this is not the year you placed the property in service, the property is not qualified property, or you elected not to claim a special allowance   -0- 13. Compare state income taxes Subtract line 12 from line 11. Compare state income taxes This is your basis for depreciation   $10,000 14. Compare state income taxes Depreciation rate (from line 6)   . Compare state income taxes 1429 15. Compare state income taxes Multiply line 13 by line 14. Compare state income taxes This is your MACRS depreciation deduction   $1,429 *If real estate, do not include cost (basis) of land. Compare state income taxes If there are no adjustments to the basis of the property other than depreciation, your depreciation deduction for each subsequent year of the recovery period will be as follows. Compare state income taxes Year   Basis Percentage Deduction 2014 $ 10,000 24. Compare state income taxes 49%   $2,449   2015   10,000 17. Compare state income taxes 49   1,749   2016   10,000 12. Compare state income taxes 49   1,249   2017   10,000 8. Compare state income taxes 93   893   2018   10,000 8. Compare state income taxes 92   892   2019   10,000 8. Compare state income taxes 93   893   2020   10,000 4. Compare state income taxes 46   446   Examples The following examples are provided to show you how to use the percentage tables. Compare state income taxes In both examples, assume the following. Compare state income taxes You use the property only for business. Compare state income taxes You use the calendar year as your tax year. Compare state income taxes You use GDS for all the properties. Compare state income taxes Example 1. Compare state income taxes You bought a building and land for $120,000 and placed it in service on March 8. Compare state income taxes The sales contract showed that the building cost $100,000 and the land cost $20,000. Compare state income taxes It is nonresidential real property. Compare state income taxes The building's unadjusted basis is its original cost, $100,000. Compare state income taxes You refer to the MACRS Percentage Table Guide in Appendix A and find that you should use Table A-7a. Compare state income taxes March is the third month of your tax year, so multiply the building's unadjusted basis, $100,000, by the percentages for the third month in Table A-7a. Compare state income taxes Your depreciation deduction for each of the first 3 years is as follows: Year   Basis Percentage Deduction 1st $ 100,000 2. Compare state income taxes 033%   $2,033   2nd   100,000 2. Compare state income taxes 564   2,564   3rd   100,000 2. Compare state income taxes 564   2,564   Example 2. Compare state income taxes During the year, you bought a machine (7-year property) for $4,000, office furniture (7-year property) for $1,000, and a computer (5-year property) for $5,000. Compare state income taxes You placed the machine in service in January, the furniture in September, and the computer in October. Compare state income taxes You do not elect a section 179 deduction and none of these items is qualified property for purposes of claiming a special depreciation allowance. Compare state income taxes You placed property in service during the last 3 months of the year, so you must first determine if you have to use the mid-quarter convention. Compare state income taxes The total bases of all property you placed in service during the year is $10,000. Compare state income taxes The $5,000 basis of the computer, which you placed in service during the last 3 months (the fourth quarter) of your tax year, is more than 40% of the total bases of all property ($10,000) you placed in service during the year. Compare state income taxes Therefore, you must use the mid-quarter convention for all three items. Compare state income taxes You refer to the MACRS Percentage Table Guide in Appendix A to determine which table you should use under the mid-quarter convention. Compare state income taxes The machine is 7-year property placed in service in the first quarter, so you use Table A-2. Compare state income taxes The furniture is 7-year property placed in service in the third quarter, so you use Table A-4. Compare state income taxes Finally, because the computer is 5-year property placed in service in the fourth quarter, you use Table A-6. Compare state income taxes Knowing what table to use for each property, you figure the depreciation for the first 2 years as follows. Compare state income taxes Year Property Basis Percentage Deduction 1st Machine $4,000 25. Compare state income taxes 00 $1,000   2nd Machine 4,000 21. Compare state income taxes 43 857   1st Furniture 1,000 10. Compare state income taxes 71 107   2nd Furniture 1,000 25. Compare state income taxes 51 255   1st Computer 5,000 5. Compare state income taxes 00 250   2nd Computer 5,000 38. Compare state income taxes 00 1,900   Sale or Other Disposition Before the Recovery Period Ends If you sell or otherwise dispose of your property before the end of its recovery period, your depreciation deduction for the year of the disposition will be only part of the depreciation amount for the full year. Compare state income taxes You have disposed of your property if you have permanently withdrawn it from use in your business or income-producing activity because of its sale, exchange, retirement, abandonment, involuntary conversion, or destruction. Compare state income taxes After you figure the full-year depreciation amount, figure the deductible part using the convention that applies to the property. Compare state income taxes Half-year convention used. Compare state income taxes   For property for which you used a half-year convention, the depreciation deduction for the year of the disposition is half the depreciation determined for the full year. Compare state income taxes Mid-quarter convention used. Compare state income taxes   For property for which you used the mid-quarter convention, figure your depreciation deduction for the year of the disposition by multiplying a full year of depreciation by the percentage listed below for the quarter in which you disposed of the property. Compare state income taxes Quarter Percentage First 12. Compare state income taxes 5% Second 37. Compare state income taxes 5 Third 62. Compare state income taxes 5 Fourth 87. Compare state income taxes 5 Example. Compare state income taxes On December 2, 2010, you placed in service an item of 5-year property costing $10,000. Compare state income taxes You did not claim a section 179 deduction and the property does not qualify for a special depreciation allowance. Compare state income taxes Your unadjusted basis for the property was $10,000. Compare state income taxes You used the mid-quarter convention because this was the only item of business property you placed in service in 2010 and it was placed in service during the last 3 months of your tax year. Compare state income taxes Your property is in the 5-year property class, so you used Table A-5 to figure your depreciation deduction. Compare state income taxes Your deductions for 2010, 2011, and 2012 were $500 (5% of $10,000), $3,800 (38% of $10,000), and $2,280 (22. Compare state income taxes 80% of $10,000). Compare state income taxes You disposed of the property on April 6, 2013. Compare state income taxes To determine your depreciation deduction for 2013, first figure the deduction for the full year. Compare state income taxes This is $1,368 (13. Compare state income taxes 68% of $10,000). Compare state income taxes April is in the second quarter of the year, so you multiply $1,368 by 37. Compare state income taxes 5% to get your depreciation deduction of $513 for 2013. Compare state income taxes Mid-month convention used. Compare state income taxes   If you dispose of residential rental or nonresidential real property, figure your depreciation deduction for the year of the disposition by multiplying a full year of depreciation by a fraction. Compare state income taxes The numerator of the fraction is the number of months (including partial months) in the year that the property is considered in service. Compare state income taxes The denominator is 12. Compare state income taxes Example. Compare state income taxes On July 2, 2011, you purchased and placed in service residential rental property. Compare state income taxes The property cost $100,000, not including the cost of land. Compare state income taxes You used Table A-6 to figure your MACRS depreciation for this property. Compare state income taxes You sold the property on March 2, 2013. Compare state income taxes You file your tax return based on the calendar year. Compare state income taxes A full year of depreciation for 2013 is $3,636. Compare state income taxes This is $100,000 multiplied by . Compare state income taxes 03636 (the percentage for the seventh month of the third recovery year) from Table A-6 . Compare state income taxes You then apply the mid-month convention for the 2½ months of use in 2013. Compare state income taxes Treat the month of disposition as one-half month of use. Compare state income taxes Multiply $3,636 by the fraction, 2. Compare state income taxes 5 over 12, to get your 2013 depreciation deduction of $757. Compare state income taxes 50. Compare state income taxes Figuring the Deduction Without Using the Tables Instead of using the rates in the percentage tables to figure your depreciation deduction, you can figure it yourself. Compare state income taxes Before making the computation each year, you must reduce your adjusted basis in the property by the depreciation claimed the previous year. Compare state income taxes Figuring MACRS deductions without using the tables generally will result in a slightly different amount than using the tables. Compare state income taxes Declining Balance Method When using a declining balance method, you apply the same depreciation rate each year to the adjusted basis of your property. Compare state income taxes You must use the applicable convention for the first tax year and you must switch to the straight line method beginning in the first year for which it will give an equal or greater deduction. Compare state income taxes The straight line method is explained later. Compare state income taxes You figure depreciation for the year you place property in service as follows. Compare state income taxes Multiply your adjusted basis in the property by the declining balance rate. Compare state income taxes Apply the applicable convention. Compare state income taxes You figure depreciation for all other years (before the year you switch to the straight line method) as follows. Compare state income taxes Reduce your adjusted basis in the property by the depreciation allowed or allowable in earlier years. Compare state income taxes Multiply this new adjusted basis by the same declining balance rate used in earlier years. Compare state income taxes If you dispose of property before the end of its recovery period, see Using the Applicable Convention, later, for information on how to figure depreciation for the year you dispose of it. Compare state income taxes Figuring depreciation under the declining balance method and switching to the straight line method is illustrated in Example 1 , later, under Examples. Compare state income taxes Declining balance rate. Compare state income taxes   You figure your declining balance rate by dividing the specified declining balance percentage (150% or 200% changed to a decimal) by the number of years in the property's recovery period. Compare state income taxes For example, for 3-year property depreciated using the 200% declining balance method, divide 2. Compare state income taxes 00 (200%) by 3 to get 0. Compare state income taxes 6667, or a 66. Compare state income taxes 67% declining balance rate. Compare state income taxes For 15-year property depreciated using the 150% declining balance method, divide 1. Compare state income taxes 50 (150%) by 15 to get 0. Compare state income taxes 10, or a 10% declining balance rate. Compare state income taxes   The following table shows the declining balance rate for each property class and the first year for which the straight line method gives an equal or greater deduction. Compare state income taxes Property Class Method Declining Balance Rate Year 3-year 200% DB 66. Compare state income taxes 667% 3rd 5-year 200% DB 40. Compare state income taxes 0 4th 7-year 200% DB 28. Compare state income taxes 571 5th 10-year 200% DB 20. Compare state income taxes 0 7th 15-year 150% DB 10. Compare state income taxes 0 7th 20-year 150% DB 7. Compare state income taxes 5 9th Straight Line Method When using the straight line method, you apply a different depreciation rate each year to the adjusted basis of your property. Compare state income taxes You must use the applicable convention in the year you place the property in service and the year you dispose of the property. Compare state income taxes You figure depreciation for the year you place property in service as follows. Compare state income taxes Multiply your adjusted basis in the property by the straight line rate. Compare state income taxes Apply the applicable convention. Compare state income taxes You figure depreciation for all other years (including the year you switch from the declining balance method to the straight line method) as follows. Compare state income taxes Reduce your adjusted basis in the property by the depreciation allowed or allowable in earlier years (under any method). Compare state income taxes Determine the depreciation rate for the year. Compare state income taxes Multiply the adjusted basis figured in (1) by the depreciation rate figured in (2). Compare state income taxes If you dispose of property before the end of its recovery period, see Using the Applicable Convention , later, for information on how to figure depreciation for the year you dispose of it. Compare state income taxes Straight line rate. Compare state income taxes   You determine the straight line depreciation rate for any tax year by dividing the number 1 by the years remaining in the recovery period at the beginning of that year. Compare state income taxes When figuring the number of years remaining, you must take into account the convention used in the year you placed the property in service. Compare state income taxes If the number of years remaining is less than 1, the depreciation rate for that tax year is 1. Compare state income taxes 0 (100%). Compare state income taxes Using the Applicable Convention The applicable convention (discussed earlier under Which Convention Applies ) affects how you figure your depreciation deduction for the year you place your property in service and for the year you dispose of it. Compare state income taxes It determines how much of the recovery period remains at the beginning of each year, so it also affects the depreciation rate for property you depreciate under the straight line method. Compare state income taxes See Straight line rate in the previous discussion. Compare state income taxes Use the applicable convention as explained in the following discussions. Compare state income taxes Half-year convention. Compare state income taxes   If this convention applies, you deduct a half-year of depreciation for the first year and the last year that you depreciate the property. Compare state income taxes You deduct a full year of depreciation for any other year during the recovery period. Compare state income taxes   Figure your depreciation deduction for the year you place the property in service by dividing the depreciation for a full year by 2. Compare state income taxes If you dispose of the property before the end of the recovery period, figure your depreciation deduction for the year of the disposition the same way. Compare state income taxes If you hold the property for the entire recovery period, your depreciation deduction for the year that includes the final 6 months of the recovery period is the amount of your unrecovered basis in the property. Compare state income taxes Mid-quarter convention. Compare state income taxes   If this convention applies, the depreciation you can deduct for the first year you depreciate the property depends on the quarter in which you place the property in service. Compare state income taxes   A quarter of a full 12-month tax year is a period of 3 months. Compare state income taxes The first quarter in a year begins on the first day of the tax year. Compare state income taxes The second quarter begins on the first day of the fourth month of the tax year. Compare state income taxes The third quarter begins on the first day of the seventh month of the tax year. Compare state income taxes The fourth quarter begins on the first day of the tenth month of the tax year. Compare state income taxes A calendar year is divided into the following quarters. Compare state income taxes Quarter Months First January, February, March Second April, May, June Third July, August, September Fourth October, November, December   Figure your depreciation deduction for the year you place the property in service by multiplying the depreciation for a full year by the percentage listed below for the quarter you place the property in service. Compare state income taxes Quarter Percentage First 87. Compare state income taxes 5% Second 62. Compare state income taxes 5 Third 37. Compare state income taxes 5 Fourth 12. Compare state income taxes 5   If you dispose of the property before the end of the recovery period, figure your depreciation deduction for the year of the disposition by multiplying a full year of depreciation by the percentage listed below for the quarter you dispose of the property. Compare state income taxes Quarter Percentage First 12. Compare state income taxes 5% Second 37. Compare state income taxes 5 Third 62. Compare state income taxes 5 Fourth 87. Compare state income taxes 5   If you hold the property for the entire recovery period, your depreciation deduction for the year that includes the final quarter of the recovery period is the amount of your unrecovered basis in the property. Compare state income taxes Mid-month convention. Compare state income taxes   If this convention applies, the depreciation you can deduct for the first year that you depreciate the property depends on the month in which you place the property in service. Compare state income taxes Figure your depreciation deduction for the year you place the property in service by multiplying the depreciation for a full year by a fraction. Compare state income taxes The numerator of the fraction is the number of full months in the year that the property is in service plus ½ (or 0. Compare state income taxes 5). Compare state income taxes The denominator is 12. Compare state income taxes   If you dispose of the property before the end of the recovery period, figure your depreciation deduction for the year of the disposition the same way. Compare state income taxes If you hold the property for the entire recovery period, your depreciation deduction for the year that includes the final month of the recovery period is the amount of your unrecovered basis in the property. Compare state income taxes Example. Compare state income taxes You use the calendar year and place nonresidential real property in service in August. Compare state income taxes The property is in service 4 full months (September, October, November, and December). Compare state income taxes Your numerator is 4. Compare state income taxes 5 (4 full months plus 0. Compare state income taxes 5). Compare state income taxes You multiply the depreciation for a full year by 4. Compare state income taxes 5/12, or 0. Compare state income taxes 375. Compare state income taxes Examples The following examples show how to figure depreciation under MACRS without using the percentage tables. Compare state income taxes Figures are rounded for purposes of the examples. Compare state income taxes Assume for all the examples that you use a calendar year as your tax year. Compare state income taxes Example 1—200% DB method and half-year convention. Compare state income taxes In February, you placed in service depreciable property with a 5-year recovery period and a basis of $1,000. Compare state income taxes You do not elect to take the section 179 deduction and the property does not qualify for a special depreciation allowance. Compare state income taxes You use GDS and the 200% declining balance (DB) method to figure your depreciation. Compare state income taxes When the straight line (SL) method results in an equal or larger deduction, you switch to the SL method. Compare state income taxes You did not place any property in service in the last 3 months of the year, so you must use the half-year convention. Compare state income taxes First year. Compare state income taxes You figure the depreciation rate under the 200% DB method by dividing 2 (200%) by 5 (the number of years in the recovery period). Compare state income taxes The result is 40%. Compare state income taxes You multiply the adjusted basis of the property ($1,000) by the 40% DB rate. Compare state income taxes You apply the half-year convention by dividing the result ($400) by 2. Compare state income taxes Depreciation for the first year under the 200% DB method is $200. Compare state income taxes You figure the depreciation rate under the straight line (SL) method by dividing 1 by 5, the number of years in the recovery period. Compare state income taxes The result is 20%. Compare state income taxes You multiply the adjusted basis of the property ($1,000) by the 20% SL rate. Compare state income taxes You apply the half-year convention by dividing the result ($200) by 2. Compare state income taxes Depreciation for the first year under the SL method is $100. Compare state income taxes The DB method provides a larger deduction, so you deduct the $200 figured under the 200% DB method. Compare state income taxes Second year. Compare state income taxes You reduce the adjusted basis ($1,000) by the depreciation claimed in the first year ($200). Compare state income taxes You multiply the result ($800) by the DB rate (40%). Compare state income taxes Depreciation for the second year under the 200% DB method is $320. Compare state income taxes You figure the SL depreciation rate by dividing 1 by 4. Compare state income taxes 5, the number of years remaining in the recovery period. Compare state income taxes (Based on the half-year convention, you used only half a year of the recovery period in the first year. Compare state income taxes ) You multiply the reduced adjusted basis ($800) by the result (22. Compare state income taxes 22%). Compare state income taxes Depreciation under the SL method for the second year is $178. Compare state income taxes The DB method provides a larger deduction, so you deduct the $320 figured under the 200% DB method. Compare state income taxes Third year. Compare state income taxes You reduce the adjusted basis ($800) by the depreciation claimed in the second year ($320). Compare state income taxes You multiply the result ($480) by the DB rate (40%). Compare state income taxes Depreciation for the third year under the 200% DB method is $192. Compare state income taxes You figure the SL depreciation rate by dividing 1 by 3. Compare state income taxes 5. Compare state income taxes You multiply the reduced adjusted basis ($480) by the result (28. Compare state income taxes 57%). Compare state income taxes Depreciation under the SL method for the third year is $137. Compare state income taxes The DB method provides a larger deduction, so you deduct the $192 figured under the 200% DB method. Compare state income taxes Fourth year. Compare state income taxes You reduce the adjusted basis ($480) by the de