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Amend 2011 Tax Return Online

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Amend 2011 Tax Return Online

Amend 2011 tax return online 1. Amend 2011 tax return online   Organizations Subject to the Tax Table of Contents The tax on unrelated business income applies to most organizations exempt from tax under section 501(a). Amend 2011 tax return online These organizations include charitable, religious, scientific, and other organizations described in section 501(c), as well as employees' trusts forming part of pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans described in section 401(a). Amend 2011 tax return online In addition, the following are subject to the tax on unrelated business income. Amend 2011 tax return online Individual retirement arrangements (IRAs), including traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs, Coverdell IRAs, simplified employee pensions (SEP-IRAs), and savings incentive match plans for employees (SIMPLE IRAs). Amend 2011 tax return online State and municipal colleges and universities. Amend 2011 tax return online Qualified state tuition programs. Amend 2011 tax return online Medical savings accounts (MSAs) described in section 220(d). Amend 2011 tax return online Coverdell savings accounts described in section 530. Amend 2011 tax return online U. Amend 2011 tax return online S. Amend 2011 tax return online instrumentalities. Amend 2011 tax return online   A corporation that is a U. Amend 2011 tax return online S. Amend 2011 tax return online instrumentality described in section 501(c)(1) is not subject to the tax on unrelated business income if the corporation is organized under an Act of Congress and, under the Act, is exempt from federal income taxes. Amend 2011 tax return online Colleges and universities. Amend 2011 tax return online   Colleges and universities that are agencies or instrumentalities of any government or any political subdivision of a government, or that are owned or operated by a government or political subdivision of a government, are subject to the tax on unrelated business income. Amend 2011 tax return online As used here, the word government includes any foreign government (to the extent not contrary to a treaty) and all domestic governments (the United States and any of its possessions, any state, and the District of Columbia). Amend 2011 tax return online   The tax is on the unrelated business income of both the universities and colleges themselves and on their wholly owned tax exempt subsidiary organizations. Amend 2011 tax return online It is immaterial whether the business is conducted by the university or by a separately incorporated wholly owned subsidiary. Amend 2011 tax return online If the business activity is unrelated, the income in both instances will be subject to the tax. Amend 2011 tax return online If the primary purpose of a wholly owned subsidiary is to operate or conduct any unrelated trade or business (other than holding title to property and collecting income from it), the subsidiary is not an exempt organization, and this rule does not apply. Amend 2011 tax return online Title-holding corporations. Amend 2011 tax return online   When an exempt title-holding corporation, described in section 501(c)(2), pays any of its net income to an organization that itself is exempt from tax under section 501(a) (or would pay such an amount except that the expenses of collecting its income exceed the amount collected) and files a consolidated return with that organization, the title-holding corporation is treated, for unrelated business income tax purposes, as organized and operated for the same purposes as the exempt payee organization. Amend 2011 tax return online   Thus, a title-holding corporation whose source of income is related to the exempt purposes of the payee organization is not subject to the unrelated business income tax if the holding corporation and the payee organization file a consolidated return. Amend 2011 tax return online However, if the source of the income is not so related, the title-holding corporation is subject to unrelated business income tax. Amend 2011 tax return online Example. Amend 2011 tax return online X, a title-holding corporation, is required to distribute its net income to A, an exempt organization. Amend 2011 tax return online During the tax year, X realizes net income of $900,000 from source M, which is related to A's exempt function. Amend 2011 tax return online X also receives $100,000 from source N, which is not related to A's exempt function. Amend 2011 tax return online X and A file a consolidated return for the tax year. Amend 2011 tax return online X has unrelated business income of $100,000. Amend 2011 tax return online Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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The Amend 2011 Tax Return Online

Amend 2011 tax return online 8. Amend 2011 tax return online   Gains and Losses Table of Contents Introduction Topics - This chapter discusses: Useful Items - You may want to see: Sales and ExchangesDetermining Gain or Loss Like-Kind Exchanges Transfer to Spouse Ordinary or Capital Gain or LossCapital Assets Noncapital Assets Hedging (Commodity Futures) Livestock Converted Wetland and Highly Erodible Cropland Timber Sale of a Farm Foreclosure or Repossession Abandonment Introduction This chapter explains how to figure, and report on your tax return, your gain or loss on the disposition of your property or debt and whether such gain or loss is ordinary or capital. Amend 2011 tax return online Ordinary gain is taxed at the same rates as wages and interest income while capital gain is generally taxed at lower rates. Amend 2011 tax return online Dispositions discussed in this chapter include sales, exchanges, foreclosures, repossessions, canceled debts, hedging transactions, and elections to treat cutting of timber as a sale or exchange. Amend 2011 tax return online Topics - This chapter discusses: Sales and exchanges Ordinary or capital gain or loss Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 334 Tax Guide for Small Business 523 Selling Your Home 544 Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets 550 Investment Income and Expenses 908 Bankruptcy Tax Guide Form (and Instructions) 982 Reduction of Tax Attributes Due to Discharge of Indebtedness (and Section 1082 Basis Adjustment) Sch D (Form 1040) Capital Gains and Losses Sch F (Form 1040) Profit or Loss From Farming 1099-A Acquisition or Abandonment of Secured Property 1099-C Cancellation of Debt 4797 Sales of Business Property 8949 Sales and Other Dispositions of Capital Assets See chapter 16 for information about getting publications and forms. Amend 2011 tax return online Sales and Exchanges If you sell, exchange, or otherwise dispose of your property, you usually have a gain or a loss. Amend 2011 tax return online This section explains certain rules for determining whether any gain you have is taxable, and whether any loss you have is deductible. Amend 2011 tax return online A sale is a transfer of property for money or a mortgage, note, or other promise to pay money. Amend 2011 tax return online An exchange is a transfer of property for other property or services. Amend 2011 tax return online Determining Gain or Loss You usually realize a gain or loss when you sell or exchange property. Amend 2011 tax return online If the amount you realize from a sale or exchange of property is more than its adjusted basis, you will have a gain. Amend 2011 tax return online If the adjusted basis of the property is more than the amount you realize, you will have a loss. Amend 2011 tax return online Basis and adjusted basis. Amend 2011 tax return online   The basis of property you buy is usually its cost. Amend 2011 tax return online The adjusted basis of property is basis plus certain additions and minus certain deductions. Amend 2011 tax return online See chapter 6 for more information about basis and adjusted basis. Amend 2011 tax return online Amount realized. Amend 2011 tax return online   The amount you realize from a sale or exchange is the total of all money you receive plus the fair market value (FMV) (defined in chapter 6) of all property or services you receive. Amend 2011 tax return online The amount you realize also includes any of your liabilities assumed by the buyer and any liabilities to which the property you transferred is subject, such as real estate taxes or a mortgage. Amend 2011 tax return online   If the liabilities relate to an exchange of multiple properties, see Multiple Property Exchanges in chapter 1 of Publication 544. Amend 2011 tax return online Amount recognized. Amend 2011 tax return online   Your gain or loss realized from a sale or exchange of certain property is usually a recognized gain or loss for tax purposes. Amend 2011 tax return online A recognized gain is a gain you must include in gross income and report on your income tax return. Amend 2011 tax return online A recognized loss is a loss you deduct from gross income. Amend 2011 tax return online However, your gain or loss realized from the exchange of certain property may not be recognized for tax purposes. Amend 2011 tax return online See Like-Kind Exchanges next. Amend 2011 tax return online Also, a loss from the disposition of property held for personal use is not deductible. Amend 2011 tax return online Like-Kind Exchanges Certain exchanges of property are not taxable. Amend 2011 tax return online This means any gain from the exchange is not recognized, and any loss cannot be deducted. Amend 2011 tax return online Your gain or loss will not be recognized until you sell or otherwise dispose of the property you receive. Amend 2011 tax return online The exchange of property for the same kind of property is the most common type of nontaxable exchange. Amend 2011 tax return online To qualify for treatment as a like-kind exchange, the property traded and the property received must be both of the following. Amend 2011 tax return online Qualifying property. Amend 2011 tax return online Like-kind property. Amend 2011 tax return online These two requirements are discussed later. Amend 2011 tax return online Multiple-party transactions. Amend 2011 tax return online   The like-kind exchange rules also apply to property exchanges that involve three and four-party transactions. Amend 2011 tax return online Any part of these multiple-party transactions can qualify as a like-kind exchange if it meets all the requirements described in this section. Amend 2011 tax return online Receipt of title from third party. Amend 2011 tax return online   If you receive property in a like-kind exchange and the other party who transfers the property to you does not give you the title, but a third party does, you can still treat this transaction as a like-kind exchange if it meets all the requirements. Amend 2011 tax return online Basis of property received. Amend 2011 tax return online   If you receive property in a like-kind exchange, the basis of the property will be the same as the basis of the property you gave up. Amend 2011 tax return online See chapter 6 for more information. Amend 2011 tax return online Money paid. Amend 2011 tax return online   If, in addition to giving up like-kind property, you pay money in a like-kind exchange, you still have no recognized gain or loss. Amend 2011 tax return online The basis of the property received is the basis of the property given up, increased by the money paid. Amend 2011 tax return online Example. Amend 2011 tax return online You traded an old tractor with an adjusted basis of $15,000 for a new one. Amend 2011 tax return online The new tractor costs $300,000. Amend 2011 tax return online You were allowed $80,000 for the old tractor and paid $220,000 cash. Amend 2011 tax return online You have no recognized gain or loss on the transaction regardless of the adjusted basis of your old tractor and the basis of the new tractor is $235,000, the adjusted basis of the old tractor plus the cash paid ($15,000 + $220,000). Amend 2011 tax return online If you had sold the old tractor to a third party for $80,000 and bought a new one, you would have a recognized gain or loss on the sale of your old tractor equal to the difference between the amount realized and the adjusted basis of the old tractor. Amend 2011 tax return online In this case, the taxable gain would be $65,000 ($80,000 − $15,000) and the basis of the new tractor would be $300,000. Amend 2011 tax return online Reporting the exchange. Amend 2011 tax return online   Report the exchange of like-kind property, even though no gain or loss is recognized, on Form 8824, Like-Kind Exchanges. Amend 2011 tax return online The Instructions for Form 8824 explain how to report the details of the exchange. Amend 2011 tax return online   If you have any recognized gain because you received money or unlike property, report it on Schedule D (Form 1040) or Form 4797, whichever applies. Amend 2011 tax return online You may also have to report the recognized gain as ordinary income because of depreciation recapture on Form 4797. Amend 2011 tax return online See chapter 9 for more information. Amend 2011 tax return online Qualifying property. Amend 2011 tax return online   In a like-kind exchange, both the property you give up and the property you receive must be held by you for investment or for productive use in your trade or business. Amend 2011 tax return online Machinery, buildings, land, trucks, breeding livestock, rental houses, and certain mutual ditch, reservoir, or irrigation company stock are examples of property that may qualify. Amend 2011 tax return online Nonqualifying property. Amend 2011 tax return online   The rules for like-kind exchanges do not apply to exchanges of the following property. Amend 2011 tax return online Property you use for personal purposes, such as your home and family car. Amend 2011 tax return online Stock in trade or other property held primarily for sale, such as crops and produce. Amend 2011 tax return online Stocks, bonds, or notes. Amend 2011 tax return online However, see Qualifying property above. Amend 2011 tax return online Other securities or evidences of indebtedness, such as accounts receivable. Amend 2011 tax return online Partnership interests. Amend 2011 tax return online However, you may have a nontaxable exchange under other rules. Amend 2011 tax return online See Other Nontaxable Exchanges in chapter 1 of Publication 544. Amend 2011 tax return online Like-kind property. Amend 2011 tax return online   To qualify as a nontaxable exchange, the properties exchanged must be of like kind. Amend 2011 tax return online Like-kind properties are properties of the same nature or character, even if they differ in grade or quality. Amend 2011 tax return online Generally, real property exchanged for real property qualifies as an exchange of like-kind property. Amend 2011 tax return online For example, an exchange of city property for farm property or improved property for unimproved property is a like-kind exchange. Amend 2011 tax return online   An exchange of a tractor for a new tractor is an exchange of like-kind property, and so is an exchange of timber land for crop acreage. Amend 2011 tax return online An exchange of a tractor for acreage, however, is not an exchange of like-kind property. Amend 2011 tax return online The exchange of livestock of one sex for livestock of the other sex is not a like-kind exchange. Amend 2011 tax return online For example, the exchange of a bull for a cow is not a like-kind exchange. Amend 2011 tax return online An exchange of the assets of a business for the assets of a similar business cannot be treated as an exchange of one property for another property. Amend 2011 tax return online    Note. Amend 2011 tax return online Whether you engaged in a like-kind exchange depends on an analysis of each asset involved in the exchange. Amend 2011 tax return online Personal property. Amend 2011 tax return online   Depreciable tangible personal property can be either like kind or like class to qualify for nontaxable exchange treatment. Amend 2011 tax return online Like-class properties are depreciable tangible personal properties within the same General Asset Class or Product Class. Amend 2011 tax return online Property classified in any General Asset Class may not be classified within a Product Class. Amend 2011 tax return online Assets that are not in the same class will qualify as like-kind property if they are of the same nature or character. Amend 2011 tax return online General Asset Classes. Amend 2011 tax return online   General Asset Classes describe the types of property frequently used in many businesses. Amend 2011 tax return online They include, but are not limited to, the following property. Amend 2011 tax return online Office furniture, fixtures, and equipment (asset class 00. Amend 2011 tax return online 11). Amend 2011 tax return online Information systems, such as computers and peripheral equipment (asset class 00. Amend 2011 tax return online 12). Amend 2011 tax return online Data handling equipment except computers (asset class 00. Amend 2011 tax return online 13). Amend 2011 tax return online Automobiles and taxis (asset class 00. Amend 2011 tax return online 22). Amend 2011 tax return online Light general purpose trucks (asset class 00. Amend 2011 tax return online 241). Amend 2011 tax return online Heavy general purpose trucks (asset class 00. Amend 2011 tax return online 242). Amend 2011 tax return online Tractor units for use over-the-road (asset class 00. Amend 2011 tax return online 26). Amend 2011 tax return online Trailers and trailer-mounted containers (asset class 00. Amend 2011 tax return online 27). Amend 2011 tax return online Industrial steam and electric generation and/or distribution systems (asset class 00. Amend 2011 tax return online 4). Amend 2011 tax return online Product Classes. Amend 2011 tax return online   Product Classes include property listed in a 6-digit product class in sectors 31 through 33 of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) of the Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, United States, (NAICS Manual). Amend 2011 tax return online The latest version of the manual can be accessed at www. Amend 2011 tax return online census. Amend 2011 tax return online gov/eos/www/naics/. Amend 2011 tax return online Copies of the printed manual may be purchased from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) at  www. Amend 2011 tax return online ntis. Amend 2011 tax return online gov/products/naics. Amend 2011 tax return online aspx or by calling 1-800-553-NTIS (1-800-553-6847) or (703) 605-6000. Amend 2011 tax return online A CD-ROM version with search and retrieval software is also available from NTIS. Amend 2011 tax return online    NAICS class 333111, Farm Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing, includes most machinery and equipment used in a farming business. Amend 2011 tax return online Partially nontaxable exchange. Amend 2011 tax return online   If, in addition to like-kind property, you receive money or unlike property in an exchange on which you realize gain, you have a partially nontaxable exchange. Amend 2011 tax return online You are taxed on the gain you realize, but only to the extent of the money and the FMV of the unlike property you receive. Amend 2011 tax return online A loss is not deductible. Amend 2011 tax return online Example 1. Amend 2011 tax return online You trade farmland that cost $30,000 for $10,000 cash and other land to be used in farming with a FMV of $50,000. Amend 2011 tax return online You have a realized gain of $30,000 ($50,000 FMV of new land + $10,000 cash − $30,000 basis of old farmland = $30,000 realized gain). Amend 2011 tax return online However, only $10,000, the cash received, is recognized (included in income). Amend 2011 tax return online Example 2. Amend 2011 tax return online Assume the same facts as in Example 1, except that, instead of money, you received a tractor with a FMV of $10,000. Amend 2011 tax return online Your recognized gain is still limited to $10,000, the value of the tractor (the unlike property). Amend 2011 tax return online Example 3. Amend 2011 tax return online Assume in Example 1 that the FMV of the land you received was only $15,000. Amend 2011 tax return online Your $5,000 loss is not recognized. Amend 2011 tax return online Unlike property given up. Amend 2011 tax return online   If, in addition to like-kind property, you give up unlike property, you must recognize gain or loss on the unlike property you give up. Amend 2011 tax return online The gain or loss is the difference between the FMV of the unlike property and the adjusted basis of the unlike property. Amend 2011 tax return online Like-kind exchanges between related persons. Amend 2011 tax return online   Special rules apply to like-kind exchanges between related persons. Amend 2011 tax return online These rules affect both direct and indirect exchanges. Amend 2011 tax return online Under these rules, if either person disposes of the property within 2 years after the exchange, the exchange is disqualified from nonrecognition treatment. Amend 2011 tax return online The gain or loss on the original exchange must be recognized as of the date of the later disposition. Amend 2011 tax return online The 2-year holding period begins on the date of the last transfer of property that was part of the like-kind exchange. Amend 2011 tax return online Related persons. Amend 2011 tax return online   Under these rules, related persons include, for example, you and a member of your family (spouse, brother, sister, parent, child, etc. Amend 2011 tax return online ), you and a corporation in which you have more than 50% ownership, you and a partnership in which you directly or indirectly own more than a 50% interest of the capital or profits, and two partnerships in which you directly or indirectly own more than 50% of the capital interests or profits. Amend 2011 tax return online   For the complete list of related persons, see Related persons in chapter 2 of Publication 544. Amend 2011 tax return online Example. Amend 2011 tax return online You used a grey pickup truck in your farming business. Amend 2011 tax return online Your sister used a red pickup truck in her landscaping business. Amend 2011 tax return online In December 2012, you exchanged your grey pickup truck, plus $200, for your sister's red pickup truck. Amend 2011 tax return online At that time, the FMV of the grey pickup truck was $7,000 and its adjusted basis was $6,000. Amend 2011 tax return online The FMV of the red pickup truck was $7,200 and its adjusted basis was $1,000. Amend 2011 tax return online You realized a gain of $1,000 (the $7,200 FMV of the red pickup truck, minus the grey pickup truck's $6,000 adjusted basis, minus the $200 you paid). Amend 2011 tax return online Your sister realized a gain of $6,200 (the $7,000 FMV of the grey pickup truck plus the $200 you paid, minus the $1,000 adjusted basis of the red pickup truck). Amend 2011 tax return online However, because this was a like-kind exchange, you recognized no gain. Amend 2011 tax return online Your basis in the red pickup truck was $6,200 (the $6,000 adjusted basis of the grey pickup truck plus the $200 you paid). Amend 2011 tax return online She recognized gain only to the extent of the money she received, $200. Amend 2011 tax return online Her basis in the grey pickup truck was $1,000 (the $1,000 adjusted basis of the red pickup truck minus the $200 received, plus the $200 gain recognized). Amend 2011 tax return online In 2013, you sold the red pickup truck to a third party for $7,000. Amend 2011 tax return online Because you sold it within 2 years after the exchange, the exchange is disqualified from nonrecognition treatment. Amend 2011 tax return online On your tax return for 2013, you must report your $1,000 gain on the 2012 exchange. Amend 2011 tax return online You also report a loss on the sale as $200 (the adjusted basis of the red pickup truck, $7,200 (its $6,200 basis plus the $1,000 gain recognized), minus the $7,000 realized from the sale). Amend 2011 tax return online In addition, your sister must report on her tax return for 2013 the $6,000 balance of her gain on the 2012 exchange. Amend 2011 tax return online Her adjusted basis in the grey pickup truck is increased to $7,000 (its $1,000 basis plus the $6,000 gain recognized). Amend 2011 tax return online Exceptions to the rules for related persons. Amend 2011 tax return online   The following property dispositions are excluded from these rules. Amend 2011 tax return online Dispositions due to the death of either related person. Amend 2011 tax return online Involuntary conversions. Amend 2011 tax return online Dispositions where it is established to the satisfaction of the IRS that neither the exchange nor the disposition has, as a main purpose, the avoidance of federal income tax. Amend 2011 tax return online Multiple property exchanges. Amend 2011 tax return online   Under the like-kind exchange rules, you must generally make a property-by-property comparison to figure your recognized gain and the basis of the property you receive in the exchange. Amend 2011 tax return online However, for exchanges of multiple properties, you do not make a property-by-property comparison if you do either of the following. Amend 2011 tax return online Transfer and receive properties in two or more exchange groups. Amend 2011 tax return online Transfer or receive more than one property within a single exchange group. Amend 2011 tax return online   For more information, see Multiple Property Exchanges in chapter 1 of Publication 544. Amend 2011 tax return online Deferred exchange. Amend 2011 tax return online   A deferred exchange for like-kind property may qualify for nonrecognition of gain or loss. Amend 2011 tax return online A deferred exchange is an exchange in which you transfer property you use in business or hold for investment and later receive like-kind property you will use in business or hold for investment. Amend 2011 tax return online The property you receive is replacement property. Amend 2011 tax return online The transaction must be an exchange of property for property rather than a transfer of property for money used to buy replacement property. Amend 2011 tax return online In addition, the replacement property will not be treated as like-kind property unless certain identification and receipt requirements are met. Amend 2011 tax return online   For more information see Deferred Exchanges in chapter 1 of Publication 544. Amend 2011 tax return online Transfer to Spouse No gain or loss is recognized on a transfer of property from an individual to (or in trust for the benefit of) a spouse, or a former spouse if incident to divorce. Amend 2011 tax return online This rule does not apply if the recipient is a nonresident alien. Amend 2011 tax return online Nor does this rule apply to a transfer in trust to the extent the liabilities assumed and the liabilities on the property are more than the property's adjusted basis. Amend 2011 tax return online Any transfer of property to a spouse or former spouse on which gain or loss is not recognized is not considered a sale or exchange. Amend 2011 tax return online The recipient's basis in the property will be the same as the adjusted basis of the giver immediately before the transfer. Amend 2011 tax return online This carryover basis rule applies whether the adjusted basis of the transferred property is less than, equal to, or greater than either its FMV at the time of transfer or any consideration paid by the recipient. Amend 2011 tax return online This rule applies for determining loss as well as gain. Amend 2011 tax return online Any gain recognized on a transfer in trust increases the basis. Amend 2011 tax return online For more information on transfers of property incident to divorce, see Property Settlements in Publication 504, Divorced or Separated Individuals. Amend 2011 tax return online Ordinary or Capital Gain or Loss Generally, you will have a capital gain or loss if you sell or exchange a capital asset (defined below). Amend 2011 tax return online You may also have a capital gain if your section 1231 transactions result in a net gain. Amend 2011 tax return online See Section 1231 Gains and Losses in  chapter 9. Amend 2011 tax return online To figure your net capital gain or loss, you must classify your gains and losses as either ordinary or capital (and your capital gains or losses as either short-term or long-term). Amend 2011 tax return online Your net capital gains may be taxed at a lower tax rate than ordinary income. Amend 2011 tax return online See Capital Gains Tax Rates , later. Amend 2011 tax return online Your deduction for a net capital loss may be limited. Amend 2011 tax return online See Treatment of Capital Losses , later. Amend 2011 tax return online Capital Assets Almost everything you own and use for personal purposes or investment is a capital asset. Amend 2011 tax return online The following items are examples of capital assets. Amend 2011 tax return online A home owned and occupied by you and your family. Amend 2011 tax return online Household furnishings. Amend 2011 tax return online A car used for pleasure. Amend 2011 tax return online If your car is used both for pleasure and for farm business, it is partly a capital asset and partly a noncapital asset, defined later. Amend 2011 tax return online Stocks and bonds. Amend 2011 tax return online However, there are special rules for gains on qualified small business stock. Amend 2011 tax return online For more information on this subject, see Gains on Qualified Small Business Stock and Losses on Section 1244 (Small Business) Stock in chapter 4 of Publication 550. Amend 2011 tax return online Personal-use property. Amend 2011 tax return online   Gain from a sale or exchange of personal-use property is a capital gain and is taxable. Amend 2011 tax return online Loss from the sale or exchange of personal-use property is not deductible. Amend 2011 tax return online You can deduct a loss relating to personal-use property only if it results from a casualty or theft. Amend 2011 tax return online For information on casualties and thefts, see chapter 11. Amend 2011 tax return online Long and Short Term Where you report a capital gain or loss depends on how long you own the asset before you sell or exchange it. Amend 2011 tax return online The time you own an asset before disposing of it is the holding period. Amend 2011 tax return online If you hold a capital asset 1 year or less, the gain or loss resulting from its disposition is short term. Amend 2011 tax return online Report it in Part I of Schedule D (Form 1040). Amend 2011 tax return online If you hold a capital asset longer than 1 year, the gain or loss resulting from its disposition is long term. Amend 2011 tax return online Report it in Part II of Schedule D (Form 1040). Amend 2011 tax return online Holding period. Amend 2011 tax return online   To figure if you held property longer than 1 year, start counting on the day after the day you acquired the property. Amend 2011 tax return online The day you disposed of the property is part of your holding period. Amend 2011 tax return online Example. Amend 2011 tax return online If you bought an asset on June 19, 2012, you should start counting on June 20, 2012. Amend 2011 tax return online If you sold the asset on June 19, 2013, your holding period is not longer than 1 year, but if you sold it on June 20, 2013, your holding period is longer than 1 year. Amend 2011 tax return online Inherited property. Amend 2011 tax return online   If you inherit property, you are considered to have held the property longer than 1 year, regardless of how long you actually held it. Amend 2011 tax return online This rule does not apply to livestock used in a farm business. Amend 2011 tax return online See Holding period under Livestock , later. Amend 2011 tax return online Nonbusiness bad debt. Amend 2011 tax return online   A nonbusiness bad debt is a short-term capital loss, deductible in the year the debt becomes worthless. Amend 2011 tax return online See chapter 4 of Publication 550. Amend 2011 tax return online Nontaxable exchange. Amend 2011 tax return online   If you acquire an asset in exchange for another asset and your basis for the new asset is figured, in whole or in part, by using your basis in the old property, the holding period of the new property includes the holding period of the old property. Amend 2011 tax return online That is, it begins on the same day as your holding period for the old property. Amend 2011 tax return online Gift. Amend 2011 tax return online   If you receive a gift of property and your basis in it is figured using the donor's basis, your holding period includes the donor's holding period. Amend 2011 tax return online Real property. Amend 2011 tax return online   To figure how long you held real property, start counting on the day after you received title to it or, if earlier, on the day after you took possession of it and assumed the burdens and privileges of ownership. Amend 2011 tax return online   However, taking possession of real property under an option agreement is not enough to start the holding period. Amend 2011 tax return online The holding period cannot start until there is an actual contract of sale. Amend 2011 tax return online The holding period of the seller cannot end before that time. Amend 2011 tax return online Figuring Net Gain or Loss The totals for short-term capital gains and losses and the totals for long-term capital gains and losses must be figured separately. Amend 2011 tax return online Net short-term capital gain or loss. Amend 2011 tax return online   Combine your short-term capital gains and losses. Amend 2011 tax return online Do this by adding all of your short-term capital gains. Amend 2011 tax return online Then add all of your short-term capital losses. Amend 2011 tax return online Subtract the lesser total from the greater. Amend 2011 tax return online The difference is your net short-term capital gain or loss. Amend 2011 tax return online Net long-term capital gain or loss. Amend 2011 tax return online   Follow the same steps to combine your long-term capital gains and losses. Amend 2011 tax return online The result is your net long-term capital gain or loss. Amend 2011 tax return online Net gain. Amend 2011 tax return online   If the total of your capital gains is more than the total of your capital losses, the difference is taxable. Amend 2011 tax return online However, part of your gain (but not more than your net capital gain) may be taxed at a lower rate than the rate of tax on your ordinary income. Amend 2011 tax return online See Capital Gains Tax Rates , later. Amend 2011 tax return online Net loss. Amend 2011 tax return online   If the total of your capital losses is more than the total of your capital gains, the difference is deductible. Amend 2011 tax return online But there are limits on how much loss you can deduct and when you can deduct it. Amend 2011 tax return online See Treatment of Capital Losses next. Amend 2011 tax return online Treatment of Capital Losses If your capital losses are more than your capital gains, you must claim the difference even if you do not have ordinary income to offset it. Amend 2011 tax return online For taxpayers other than corporations, the yearly limit on the capital loss you can deduct is $3,000 ($1,500 if you are married and file a separate return). Amend 2011 tax return online If your other income is low, you may not be able to use the full $3,000. Amend 2011 tax return online The part of the $3,000 you cannot use becomes part of your capital loss carryover (discussed next). Amend 2011 tax return online Capital loss carryover. Amend 2011 tax return online   Generally, you have a capital loss carryover if either of the following situations applies to you. Amend 2011 tax return online Your net loss on Schedule D (Form 1040), is more than the yearly limit. Amend 2011 tax return online Your taxable income without your deduction for exemptions is less than zero. Amend 2011 tax return online If either of these situations applies to you for 2013, see Capital Losses under Reporting Capital Gains and Losses in chapter 4 of Publication 550 to figure the amount you can carry over to 2014. Amend 2011 tax return online    To figure your capital loss carryover from 2013 to 2014, you will need a copy of your 2013 Form 1040 and Schedule D (Form 1040). Amend 2011 tax return online Capital Gains Tax Rates The tax rates that apply to a net capital gain are generally lower than the tax rates that apply to other income. Amend 2011 tax return online These lower rates are called the maximum capital gains rates. Amend 2011 tax return online The term “net capital gain” means the amount by which your net long-term capital gain for the year is more than your net short-term capital loss. Amend 2011 tax return online See Schedule D (Form 1040) and the Instructions for Schedule D (Form 1040). Amend 2011 tax return online Also see Publication 550. Amend 2011 tax return online Noncapital Assets Noncapital assets include property such as inventory and depreciable property used in a trade or business. Amend 2011 tax return online A list of properties that are not capital assets is provided in the Instructions for Schedule D (Form 1040). Amend 2011 tax return online Property held for sale in the ordinary course of your farm business. Amend 2011 tax return online   Property you hold mainly for sale to customers, such as livestock, poultry, livestock products, and crops, is a noncapital asset. Amend 2011 tax return online Gain or loss from sales or other dispositions of this property is reported on Schedule F (Form 1040) (not on Schedule D (Form 1040) or Form 4797). Amend 2011 tax return online The treatment of this property is discussed in chapter 3. Amend 2011 tax return online Land and depreciable properties. Amend 2011 tax return online   Land and depreciable property you use in farming are not capital assets. Amend 2011 tax return online Noncapital assets also include livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes. Amend 2011 tax return online However, your gains and losses from sales and exchanges of your farmland and depreciable properties must be considered together with certain other transactions to determine whether the gains and losses are treated as capital or ordinary gains and losses. Amend 2011 tax return online The sales of these business assets are reported on Form 4797. Amend 2011 tax return online See chapter 9 for more information. Amend 2011 tax return online Hedging (Commodity Futures) Hedging transactions are transactions that you enter into in the normal course of business primarily to manage the risk of interest rate or price changes, or currency fluctuations, with respect to borrowings, ordinary property, or ordinary obligations. Amend 2011 tax return online Ordinary property or obligations are those that cannot produce capital gain or loss if sold or exchanged. Amend 2011 tax return online A commodity futures contract is a standardized, exchange-traded contract for the sale or purchase of a fixed amount of a commodity at a future date for a fixed price. Amend 2011 tax return online The holder of an option on a futures contract has the right (but not the obligation) for a specified period of time to enter into a futures contract to buy or sell at a particular price. Amend 2011 tax return online A forward contract is generally similar to a futures contract except that the terms are not standardized and the contract is not exchange traded. Amend 2011 tax return online Businesses may enter into commodity futures contracts or forward contracts and may acquire options on commodity futures contracts as either of the following. Amend 2011 tax return online Hedging transactions. Amend 2011 tax return online Transactions that are not hedging transactions. Amend 2011 tax return online Futures transactions with exchange-traded commodity futures contracts that are not hedging transactions, generally, result in capital gain or loss and are subject to the mark-to-market rules discussed in Publication 550. Amend 2011 tax return online There is a limit on the amount of capital losses you can deduct each year. Amend 2011 tax return online Hedging transactions are not subject to the mark-to-market rules. Amend 2011 tax return online If, as a farmer-producer, to protect yourself from the risk of unfavorable price fluctuations, you enter into commodity forward contracts, futures contracts, or options on futures contracts and the contracts cover an amount of the commodity within your range of production, the transactions are generally considered hedging transactions. Amend 2011 tax return online They can take place at any time you have the commodity under production, have it on hand for sale, or reasonably expect to have it on hand. Amend 2011 tax return online The gain or loss on the termination of these hedges is generally ordinary gain or loss. Amend 2011 tax return online Farmers who file their income tax returns on the cash method report any profit or loss on the hedging transaction on Schedule F, line 8. Amend 2011 tax return online Gains or losses from hedging transactions that hedge supplies of a type regularly used or consumed in the ordinary course of your trade or business may be ordinary gains or losses. Amend 2011 tax return online Examples include fuel and feed. Amend 2011 tax return online If you have numerous transactions in the commodity futures market during the year, you must be able to show which transactions are hedging transactions. Amend 2011 tax return online Clearly identify a hedging transaction on your books and records before the end of the day you entered into the transaction. Amend 2011 tax return online It may be helpful to have separate brokerage accounts for your hedging and speculation transactions. Amend 2011 tax return online Retain the identification of each hedging transaction with your books and records. Amend 2011 tax return online Also, identify the item(s) or aggregate risk that is being hedged in your records. Amend 2011 tax return online Although the identification of the hedging transaction must be made before the end of the day it was entered into, you have 35 days after entering into the transaction to identify the hedged item(s) or risk. Amend 2011 tax return online For more information on the tax treatment of futures and options contracts, see Commodity Futures and Section 1256 Contracts Marked to Market in Publication 550. Amend 2011 tax return online Accounting methods for hedging transactions. Amend 2011 tax return online   The accounting method you use for a hedging transaction must clearly reflect income. Amend 2011 tax return online This means that your accounting method must reasonably match the timing of income, deduction, gain, or loss from a hedging transaction with the timing of income, deduction, gain, or loss from the item or items being hedged. Amend 2011 tax return online There are requirements and limits on the method you can use for certain hedging transactions. Amend 2011 tax return online See Regulations section 1. Amend 2011 tax return online 446-4(e) for those requirements and limits. Amend 2011 tax return online   Hedging transactions must be accounted for under the rules stated above unless the transaction is subject to mark-to-market accounting under section 475 or you use an accounting method other than the following methods. Amend 2011 tax return online Cash method. Amend 2011 tax return online Farm-price method. Amend 2011 tax return online Unit-livestock-price method. Amend 2011 tax return online   Once you adopt a method, you must apply it consistently and must have IRS approval before changing it. Amend 2011 tax return online   Your books and records must describe the accounting method used for each type of hedging transaction. Amend 2011 tax return online They must also contain any additional identification necessary to verify the application of the accounting method you used for the transaction. Amend 2011 tax return online You must make the additional identification no more than 35 days after entering into the hedging transaction. Amend 2011 tax return online Example of a hedging transaction. Amend 2011 tax return online   You file your income tax returns on the cash method. Amend 2011 tax return online On July 2 you anticipate a yield of 50,000 bushels of corn this year. Amend 2011 tax return online The December futures price is $5. Amend 2011 tax return online 75 a bushel, but there are indications that by harvest time the price will drop. Amend 2011 tax return online To protect yourself against a drop in the price, you enter into the following hedging transaction. Amend 2011 tax return online You sell ten December futures contracts of 5,000 bushels each for a total of 50,000 bushels of corn at $5. Amend 2011 tax return online 75 a bushel. Amend 2011 tax return online   The price did not drop as anticipated but rose to $6 a bushel. Amend 2011 tax return online In November, you sell your crop at a local elevator for $6 a bushel. Amend 2011 tax return online You also close out your futures position by buying ten December contracts for $6 a bushel. Amend 2011 tax return online You paid a broker's commission of $1,400 ($70 per contract) for the complete in and out position in the futures market. Amend 2011 tax return online   The result is that the price of corn rose 25 cents a bushel and the actual selling price is $6 a bushel. Amend 2011 tax return online Your loss on the hedge is 25 cents a bushel. Amend 2011 tax return online In effect, the net selling price of your corn is $5. Amend 2011 tax return online 75 a bushel. Amend 2011 tax return online   Report the results of your futures transactions and your sale of corn separately on Schedule F. Amend 2011 tax return online See the instructions for the 2013 Schedule F (Form 1040). Amend 2011 tax return online   The loss on your futures transactions is $13,900, figured as follows. Amend 2011 tax return online July 2 - Sold December corn futures (50,000 bu. Amend 2011 tax return online @$5. Amend 2011 tax return online 75) $287,500 November 6 - Bought December corn futures (50,000 bu. Amend 2011 tax return online @$6 plus $1,400 broker's commission) 301,400 Futures loss ($13,900) This loss is reported as a negative figure on Schedule F, Part I, line 8, as other income. Amend 2011 tax return online   The proceeds from your corn sale at the local elevator are $300,000 (50,000 bu. Amend 2011 tax return online × $6). Amend 2011 tax return online Report it on Schedule F, Part I, line 2, as income from sales of products you raised. Amend 2011 tax return online   Assume you were right and the price went down 25 cents a bushel. Amend 2011 tax return online In effect, you would still net $5. Amend 2011 tax return online 75 a bushel, figured as follows. Amend 2011 tax return online Sold cash corn, per bushel $5. Amend 2011 tax return online 50 Gain on hedge, per bushel . Amend 2011 tax return online 25 Net price, per bushel $5. Amend 2011 tax return online 75       The gain on your futures transactions would have been $11,100, figured as follows. Amend 2011 tax return online July 2 - Sold December corn futures (50,000 bu. Amend 2011 tax return online @$5. Amend 2011 tax return online 75) $287,500 November 6 - Bought December corn futures (50,000 bu. Amend 2011 tax return online @$5. Amend 2011 tax return online 50 plus $1,400 broker's commission) 276,400 Futures gain $11,100 The $11,100 is reported on Schedule F, Part I, line 8, as other income. Amend 2011 tax return online   The proceeds from the sale of your corn at the local elevator, $275,000, are reported on Schedule F, Part I, line 2, as income from sales of products you raised. Amend 2011 tax return online Livestock This part discusses the sale or exchange of livestock used in your farm business. Amend 2011 tax return online Gain or loss from the sale or exchange of this livestock may qualify as a section 1231 gain or loss. Amend 2011 tax return online However, any part of the gain that is ordinary income from the recapture of depreciation is not included as section 1231 gain. Amend 2011 tax return online See chapter 9 for more information on section 1231 gains and losses and the recapture of depreciation under section 1245. Amend 2011 tax return online The rules discussed here do not apply to the sale of livestock held primarily for sale to customers. Amend 2011 tax return online The sale of this livestock is reported on Schedule F. Amend 2011 tax return online See chapter 3. Amend 2011 tax return online Also, special rules apply to sales or exchanges caused by weather-related conditions. Amend 2011 tax return online See chapter 3. Amend 2011 tax return online Holding period. Amend 2011 tax return online   The sale or exchange of livestock used in your farm business (defined below) qualifies as a section 1231 transaction if you held the livestock for 12 months or more (24 months or more for horses and cattle). Amend 2011 tax return online Livestock. Amend 2011 tax return online   For section 1231 transactions, livestock includes cattle, hogs, horses, mules, donkeys, sheep, goats, fur-bearing animals, and other mammals. Amend 2011 tax return online Also, for section 1231 transactions, livestock does not include chickens, turkeys, pigeons, geese, emus, ostriches, rheas, or other birds, fish, frogs, reptiles, etc. Amend 2011 tax return online Livestock used in farm business. Amend 2011 tax return online   If livestock is held primarily for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes, it is used in your farm business. Amend 2011 tax return online The purpose for which an animal is held ordinarily is determined by a farmer's actual use of the animal. Amend 2011 tax return online An animal is not held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes merely because it is suitable for that purpose, or because it is held for sale to other persons for use by them for that purpose. Amend 2011 tax return online However, a draft, breeding, or sporting purpose may be present if an animal is disposed of within a reasonable time after it is prevented from its intended use or made undesirable as a result of an accident, disease, drought, or unfitness of the animal. Amend 2011 tax return online Example 1. Amend 2011 tax return online You discover an animal that you intend to use for breeding purposes is sterile. Amend 2011 tax return online You dispose of it within a reasonable time. Amend 2011 tax return online This animal was held for breeding purposes. Amend 2011 tax return online Example 2. Amend 2011 tax return online You retire and sell your entire herd, including young animals that you would have used for breeding or dairy purposes had you remained in business. Amend 2011 tax return online These young animals were held for breeding or dairy purposes. Amend 2011 tax return online Also, if you sell young animals to reduce your breeding or dairy herd because of drought, these animals are treated as having been held for breeding or dairy purposes. Amend 2011 tax return online See Sales Caused by Weather-Related Conditions in chapter 3. Amend 2011 tax return online Example 3. Amend 2011 tax return online You are in the business of raising hogs for slaughter. Amend 2011 tax return online Customarily, before selling your sows, you obtain a single litter of pigs that you will raise for sale. Amend 2011 tax return online You sell the brood sows after obtaining the litter. Amend 2011 tax return online Even though you hold these brood sows for ultimate sale to customers in the ordinary course of your business, they are considered to be held for breeding purposes. Amend 2011 tax return online Example 4. Amend 2011 tax return online You are in the business of raising registered cattle for sale to others for use as breeding cattle. Amend 2011 tax return online The business practice is to breed the cattle before sale to establish their fitness as registered breeding cattle. Amend 2011 tax return online Your use of the young cattle for breeding purposes is ordinary and necessary for selling them as registered breeding cattle. Amend 2011 tax return online Such use does not demonstrate that you are holding the cattle for breeding purposes. Amend 2011 tax return online However, those cattle you held as additions or replacements to your own breeding herd to produce calves are considered to be held for breeding purposes, even though they may not actually have produced calves. Amend 2011 tax return online The same applies to hog and sheep breeders. Amend 2011 tax return online Example 5. Amend 2011 tax return online You breed, raise, and train horses for racing purposes. Amend 2011 tax return online Every year you cull horses from your racing stable. Amend 2011 tax return online In 2013, you decided that to prevent your racing stable from getting too large to be effectively operated, you must cull six horses that had been raced at public tracks in 2012. Amend 2011 tax return online These horses are all considered held for sporting purposes. Amend 2011 tax return online Figuring gain or loss on the cash method. Amend 2011 tax return online   Farmers or ranchers who use the cash method of accounting figure their gain or loss on the sale of livestock used in their farming business as follows. Amend 2011 tax return online Raised livestock. Amend 2011 tax return online   Gain on the sale of raised livestock is generally the gross sales price reduced by any expenses of the sale. Amend 2011 tax return online Expenses of sale include sales commissions, freight or hauling from farm to commission company, and other similar expenses. Amend 2011 tax return online The basis of the animal sold is zero if the costs of raising it were deducted during the years the animal was being raised. Amend 2011 tax return online However, see Uniform Capitalization Rules in chapter 6. Amend 2011 tax return online Purchased livestock. Amend 2011 tax return online   The gross sales price minus your adjusted basis and any expenses of sale is the gain or loss. Amend 2011 tax return online Example. Amend 2011 tax return online A farmer sold a breeding cow on January 8, 2013, for $1,250. Amend 2011 tax return online Expenses of the sale were $125. Amend 2011 tax return online The cow was bought July 2, 2009, for $1,300. Amend 2011 tax return online Depreciation (not less than the amount allowable) was $867. Amend 2011 tax return online Gross sales price $1,250 Cost (basis) $1,300   Minus: Depreciation deduction 867   Unrecovered cost (adjusted basis) $ 433   Expense of sale 125 558 Gain realized $ 692 Converted Wetland and Highly Erodible Cropland Special rules apply to dispositions of land converted to farming use after March 1, 1986. Amend 2011 tax return online Any gain realized on the disposition of converted wetland or highly erodible cropland is treated as ordinary income. Amend 2011 tax return online Any loss on the disposition of such property is treated as a long-term capital loss. Amend 2011 tax return online Converted wetland. Amend 2011 tax return online   This is generally land that was drained or filled to make the production of agricultural commodities possible. Amend 2011 tax return online It includes converted wetland held by the person who originally converted it or held by any other person who used the converted wetland at any time after conversion for farming. Amend 2011 tax return online   A wetland (before conversion) is land that meets all the following conditions. Amend 2011 tax return online It is mostly soil that, in its undrained condition, is saturated, flooded, or ponded long enough during a growing season to develop an oxygen-deficient state that supports the growth and regeneration of plants growing in water. Amend 2011 tax return online It is saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support mostly plants that are adapted for life in saturated soil. Amend 2011 tax return online It supports, under normal circumstances, mostly plants that grow in saturated soil. Amend 2011 tax return online Highly erodible cropland. Amend 2011 tax return online   This is cropland subject to erosion that you used at any time for farming purposes other than grazing animals. Amend 2011 tax return online Generally, highly erodible cropland is land currently classified by the Department of Agriculture as Class IV, VI, VII, or VIII under its classification system. Amend 2011 tax return online Highly erodible cropland also includes land that would have an excessive average annual erosion rate in relation to the soil loss tolerance level, as determined by the Department of Agriculture. Amend 2011 tax return online Successor. Amend 2011 tax return online   Converted wetland or highly erodible cropland is also land held by any person whose basis in the land is figured by reference to the adjusted basis of a person in whose hands the property was converted wetland or highly erodible cropland. Amend 2011 tax return online Timber Standing timber you held as investment property is a capital asset. Amend 2011 tax return online Gain or loss from its sale is capital gain or loss reported on Form 8949 and Schedule D (Form 1040), as applicable. Amend 2011 tax return online If you held the timber primarily for sale to customers, it is not a capital asset. Amend 2011 tax return online Gain or loss on its sale is ordinary business income or loss. Amend 2011 tax return online It is reported on Schedule F, line 1 (purchased timber) or line 2 (raised timber). Amend 2011 tax return online See the Instructions for Schedule F (Form 1040). Amend 2011 tax return online Farmers who cut timber on their land and sell it as logs, firewood, or pulpwood usually have no cost or other basis for that timber. Amend 2011 tax return online Amounts realized from these sales, and the expenses incurred in cutting, hauling, etc. Amend 2011 tax return online , are ordinary farm income and expenses reported on Schedule F. Amend 2011 tax return online Different rules apply if you owned the timber longer than 1 year and elect to treat timber cutting as a sale or exchange or you enter into a cutting contract, discussed below. Amend 2011 tax return online Timber considered cut. Amend 2011 tax return online   Timber is considered cut on the date when, in the ordinary course of business, the quantity of felled timber is first definitely determined. Amend 2011 tax return online This is true whether the timber is cut under contract or whether you cut it yourself. Amend 2011 tax return online Christmas trees. Amend 2011 tax return online   Evergreen trees, such as Christmas trees, that are more than 6 years old when severed from their roots and sold for ornamental purposes are included in the term timber. Amend 2011 tax return online They qualify for both rules discussed below. Amend 2011 tax return online Election to treat cutting as a sale or exchange. Amend 2011 tax return online   Under the general rule, the cutting of timber results in no gain or loss. Amend 2011 tax return online It is not until a sale or exchange occurs that gain or loss is realized. Amend 2011 tax return online But if you owned or had a contractual right to cut timber, you can elect to treat the cutting of timber as a section 1231 transaction in the year it is cut. Amend 2011 tax return online Even though the cut timber is not actually sold or exchanged, you report your gain or loss on the cutting for the year the timber is cut. Amend 2011 tax return online Any later sale results in ordinary business income or loss. Amend 2011 tax return online See the example below. Amend 2011 tax return online   To elect this treatment, you must: Own or hold a contractual right to cut the timber for a period of more than 1 year before it is cut, and Cut the timber for sale or use in your trade or business. Amend 2011 tax return online Making the election. Amend 2011 tax return online   You make the election on your return for the year the cutting takes place by including in income the gain or loss on the cutting and including a computation of your gain or loss. Amend 2011 tax return online You do not have to make the election in the first year you cut the timber. Amend 2011 tax return online You can make it in any year to which the election would apply. Amend 2011 tax return online If the timber is partnership property, the election is made on the partnership return. Amend 2011 tax return online This election cannot be made on an amended return. Amend 2011 tax return online   Once you have made the election, it remains in effect for all later years unless you revoke it. Amend 2011 tax return online Election under section 631(a) may be revoked. Amend 2011 tax return online   If you previously elected for any tax year ending before October 23, 2004, to treat the cutting of timber as a sale or exchange under section 631(a), you may revoke this election without the consent of the IRS for any tax year ending after October 22, 2004. Amend 2011 tax return online The prior election (and revocation) is disregarded for purposes of making a subsequent election. Amend 2011 tax return online See Form T (Timber), Forest Activities Schedule, for more information. Amend 2011 tax return online Gain or loss. Amend 2011 tax return online   Your gain or loss on the cutting of standing timber is the difference between its adjusted basis for depletion and its FMV on the first day of your tax year in which it is cut. Amend 2011 tax return online   Your adjusted basis for depletion of cut timber is based on the number of units (board feet, log scale, or other units) of timber cut during the tax year and considered to be sold or exchanged. Amend 2011 tax return online Your adjusted basis for depletion is also based on the depletion unit of timber in the account used for the cut timber, and should be figured in the same manner as shown in section 611 and Regulations section 1. Amend 2011 tax return online 611-3. Amend 2011 tax return online   Depletion of timber is discussed in chapter 7. Amend 2011 tax return online Example. Amend 2011 tax return online   In April 2013, you owned 4,000 MBF (1,000 board feet) of standing timber longer than 1 year. Amend 2011 tax return online It had an adjusted basis for depletion of $40 per MBF. Amend 2011 tax return online You are a calendar year taxpayer. Amend 2011 tax return online On January 1, 2013, the timber had a FMV of $350 per MBF. Amend 2011 tax return online It was cut in April for sale. Amend 2011 tax return online On your 2013 tax return, you elect to treat the cutting of the timber as a sale or exchange. Amend 2011 tax return online You report the difference between the FMV and your adjusted basis for depletion as a gain. Amend 2011 tax return online This amount is reported on Form 4797 along with your other section 1231 gains and losses to figure whether it is treated as a capital gain or as ordinary gain. Amend 2011 tax return online You figure your gain as follows. Amend 2011 tax return online FMV of timber January 1, 2013 $1,400,000 Minus: Adjusted basis for depletion 160,000 Section 1231 gain $1,240,000   The FMV becomes your basis in the cut timber, and a later sale of the cut timber, including any by-product or tree tops, will result in ordinary business income or loss. Amend 2011 tax return online Outright sales of timber. Amend 2011 tax return online   Outright sales of timber by landowners qualify for capital gains treatment using rules similar to the rules for certain disposal of timber under a contract with retained economic interest (defined later). Amend 2011 tax return online However, for outright sales, the date of disposal is not deemed to be the date the timber is cut because the landowner can elect to treat the payment date as the date of disposal (see Date of disposal below). Amend 2011 tax return online Cutting contract. Amend 2011 tax return online   You must treat the disposal of standing timber under a cutting contract as a section 1231 transaction if all the following apply to you. Amend 2011 tax return online You are the owner of the timber. Amend 2011 tax return online You held the timber longer than 1 year before its disposal. Amend 2011 tax return online You kept an economic interest in the timber. Amend 2011 tax return online   You have kept an economic interest in standing timber if, under the cutting contract, the expected return on your investment is conditioned on the cutting of the timber. Amend 2011 tax return online   The difference between the amount realized from the disposal of the timber and its adjusted basis for depletion is treated as gain or loss on its sale. Amend 2011 tax return online Include this amount on Form 4797 along with your other section 1231 gains or losses. Amend 2011 tax return online Date of disposal. Amend 2011 tax return online   The date of disposal is the date the timber is cut. Amend 2011 tax return online However, for outright sales by landowners or if you receive payment under the contract before the timber is cut, you can elect to treat the date of payment as the date of disposal. Amend 2011 tax return online   This election applies only to figure the holding period of the timber. Amend 2011 tax return online It has no effect on the time for reporting gain or loss (generally when the timber is sold or exchanged). Amend 2011 tax return online   To make this election, attach a statement to the tax return filed by the due date (including extensions) for the year payment is received. Amend 2011 tax return online The statement must identify the advance payments subject to the election and the contract under which they were made. Amend 2011 tax return online   If you timely filed your return for the year you received payment without making the election, you can still make the election by filing an amended return within 6 months after the due date for that year's return (excluding extensions). Amend 2011 tax return online Attach the statement to the amended return and write “Filed pursuant to section 301. Amend 2011 tax return online 9100-2” at the top of the statement. Amend 2011 tax return online File the amended return at the same address the original return was filed. Amend 2011 tax return online Owner. Amend 2011 tax return online   An owner is any person who owns an interest in the timber, including a sublessor and the holder of a contract to cut the timber. Amend 2011 tax return online You own an interest in timber if you have the right to cut it for sale on your own account or for use in your business. Amend 2011 tax return online Tree stumps. Amend 2011 tax return online   Tree stumps are a capital asset if they are on land held by an investor who is not in the timber or stump business as a buyer, seller, or processor. Amend 2011 tax return online Gain from the sale of stumps sold in one lot by such a holder is taxed as a capital gain. Amend 2011 tax return online However, tree stumps held by timber operators after the saleable standing timber was cut and removed from the land are considered by-products. Amend 2011 tax return online Gain from the sale of stumps in lots or tonnage by such operators is taxed as ordinary income. Amend 2011 tax return online   See Form T (Timber) and its separate instructions for more information about dispositions of timber. Amend 2011 tax return online Sale of a Farm The sale of your farm will usually involve the sale of both nonbusiness property (your home) and business property (the land and buildings used in the farm operation and perhaps machinery and livestock). Amend 2011 tax return online If you have a gain from the sale, you may be allowed to exclude the gain on your home. Amend 2011 tax return online For more information, see Publication 523, Selling Your Home. Amend 2011 tax return online The gain on the sale of your business property is taxable. Amend 2011 tax return online A loss on the sale of your business property to an unrelated person is deducted as an ordinary loss. Amend 2011 tax return online Your taxable gain or loss on the sale of property used in your farm business is taxed under the rules for section 1231 transactions. Amend 2011 tax return online See chapter 9. Amend 2011 tax return online Losses from personal-use property, other than casualty or theft losses, are not deductible. Amend 2011 tax return online If you receive payments for your farm in installments, your gain is taxed over the period of years the payments are received, unless you elect not to use the installment method of reporting the gain. Amend 2011 tax return online See chapter 10 for information about installment sales. Amend 2011 tax return online When you sell your farm, the gain or loss on each asset is figured separately. Amend 2011 tax return online The tax treatment of gain or loss on the sale of each asset is determined by the classification of the asset. Amend 2011 tax return online Each of the assets sold must be classified as one of the following. Amend 2011 tax return online Capital asset held 1 year or less. Amend 2011 tax return online Capital asset held longer than 1 year. Amend 2011 tax return online Property (including real estate) used in your business and held 1 year or less (including draft, breeding, dairy, and sporting animals held less than the holding periods discussed earlier under Livestock ). Amend 2011 tax return online Property (including real estate) used in your business and held longer than 1 year (including only draft, breeding, dairy, and sporting animals held for the holding periods discussed earlier). Amend 2011 tax return online Property held primarily for sale or which is of the kind that would be included in inventory if on hand at the end of your tax year. Amend 2011 tax return online Allocation of consideration paid for a farm. Amend 2011 tax return online   The sale of a farm for a lump sum is considered a sale of each individual asset rather than a single asset. Amend 2011 tax return online The residual method is required only if the group of assets sold constitutes a trade or business. Amend 2011 tax return online This method determines gain or loss from the transfer of each asset. Amend 2011 tax return online It also determines the buyer's basis in the business assets. Amend 2011 tax return online For more information, see Sale of a Business in chapter 2 of Publication 544. Amend 2011 tax return online Property used in farm operation. Amend 2011 tax return online   The rules for excluding the gain on the sale of your home, described later under Sale of your home , do not apply to the property used for your farming business. Amend 2011 tax return online Recognized gains and losses on business property must be reported on your return for the year of the sale. Amend 2011 tax return online If the property was held longer than 1 year, it may qualify for section 1231 treatment (see chapter 9). Amend 2011 tax return online Example. Amend 2011 tax return online You sell your farm, including your main home, which you have owned since December 2001. Amend 2011 tax return online You realize gain on the sale as follows. Amend 2011 tax return online   Farm   Farm   With Home Without   Home Only Home Selling price $382,000 $158,000 $224,000 Cost (or other basis) 240,000 110,000 130,000 Gain $142,000 $48,000 $94,000 You must report the $94,000 gain from the sale of the property used in your farm business. Amend 2011 tax return online All or a part of that gain may have to be reported as ordinary income from the recapture of depreciation or soil and water conservation expenses. Amend 2011 tax return online Treat the balance as section 1231 gain. Amend 2011 tax return online The $48,000 gain from the sale of your home is not taxable as long as you meet the requirements explained later under Sale of your home . Amend 2011 tax return online Partial sale. Amend 2011 tax return online   If you sell only part of your farm, you must report any recognized gain or loss on the sale of that part on your tax return for the year of the sale. Amend 2011 tax return online You cannot wait until you have sold enough of the farm to recover its entire cost before reporting gain or loss. Amend 2011 tax return online For a detailed discussion on installment sales, see Publication 544. Amend 2011 tax return online Adjusted basis of the part sold. Amend 2011 tax return online   This is the properly allocated part of your original cost or other basis of the entire farm plus or minus necessary adjustments for improvements, depreciation, etc. Amend 2011 tax return online , on the part sold. Amend 2011 tax return online If your home is on the farm, you must properly adjust the basis to exclude those costs from your farm asset costs, as discussed below under Sale of your home . Amend 2011 tax return online Example. Amend 2011 tax return online You bought a 600-acre farm for $700,000. Amend 2011 tax return online The farm included land and buildings. Amend 2011 tax return online The purchase contract designated $600,000 of the purchase price to the land. Amend 2011 tax return online You later sold 60 acres of land on which you had installed a fence. Amend 2011 tax return online Your adjusted basis for the part of your farm sold is $60,000 (1/10 of $600,000), plus any unrecovered cost (cost not depreciated) of the fence on the 60 acres at the time of sale. Amend 2011 tax return online Use this amount to determine your gain or loss on the sale of the 60 acres. Amend 2011 tax return online Assessed values for local property taxes. Amend 2011 tax return online   If you paid a flat sum for the entire farm and no other facts are available for properly allocating your original cost or other basis between the land and the buildings, you can use the assessed values for local property taxes for the year of purchase to allocate the costs. Amend 2011 tax return online Example. Amend 2011 tax return online Assume that in the preceding example there was no breakdown of the $700,000 purchase price between land and buildings. Amend 2011 tax return online However, in the year of purchase, local taxes on the entire property were based on assessed valuations of $420,000 for land and $140,000 for improvements, or a total of $560,000. Amend 2011 tax return online The assessed valuation of the land is 3/4 (75%) of the total assessed valuation. Amend 2011 tax return online Multiply the $700,000 total purchase price by 75% to figure basis of $525,000 for the 600 acres of land. Amend 2011 tax return online The unadjusted basis of the 60 acres you sold would then be $52,500 (1/10 of $525,000). Amend 2011 tax return online Sale of your home. Amend 2011 tax return online   Your home is a capital asset and not property used in the trade or business of farming. Amend 2011 tax return online If you sell a farm that includes a house you and your family occupy, you must determine the part of the selling price and the part of the cost or other basis allocable to your home. Amend 2011 tax return online Your home includes the immediate surroundings and outbuildings relating to it that are not used for business purposes. Amend 2011 tax return online   If you use part of your home for business, you must make an appropriate adjustment to the basis for depreciation allowed or allowable. Amend 2011 tax return online For more information on basis, see chapter 6. Amend 2011 tax return online More information. Amend 2011 tax return online   For more information on selling your home, see Publication 523. Amend 2011 tax return online Gain from condemnation. Amend 2011 tax return online   If you have a gain from a condemnation or sale under threat of condemnation, you may use the preceding rules for excluding the gain, rather than the rules discussed under Postponing Gain in chapter 11. Amend 2011 tax return online However, any gain that cannot be excluded (because it is more than the limit) may be postponed under the rules discussed under Postponing Gain in chapter 11. Amend 2011 tax return online Foreclosure or Repossession If you do not make payments you owe on a loan secured by property, the lender may foreclose on the loan or repossess the property. Amend 2011 tax return online The foreclosure or repossession is treated as a sale or exchange from which you may realize gain or loss. Amend 2011 tax return online This is true even if you voluntarily return the property to the lender. Amend 2011 tax return online You may also realize ordinary income from cancellation of debt if the loan balance is more than the FMV of the property. Amend 2011 tax return online Buyer's (borrower's) gain or loss. Amend 2011 tax return online   You figure and report gain or loss from a foreclosure or repossession in the same way as gain or loss from a sale or exchange. Amend 2011 tax return online The gain or loss is the difference between your adjusted basis in the transferred property and the amount realized. Amend 2011 tax return online See Determining Gain or Loss , earlier. Amend 2011 tax return online Worksheet 8-1. Amend 2011 tax return online Worksheet for Foreclosures andRepossessions Part 1. Amend 2011 tax return online Use Part 1 to figure your ordinary income from the cancellation of debt upon foreclosure or repossession. Amend 2011 tax return online Complete this part only if you were personally liable for the debt. Amend 2011 tax return online Otherwise, go to Part 2. Amend 2011 tax return online   1. Amend 2011 tax return online Enter the amount of outstanding debt immediately before the transfer of property reduced by any amount for which you remain personally liable after the transfer of property   2. Amend 2011 tax return online Enter the Fair Market Value of the transferred property   3. Amend 2011 tax return online Ordinary income from cancellation of debt upon foreclosure or repossession. Amend 2011 tax return online * Subtract line 2 from line 1. Amend 2011 tax return online If zero or less, enter -0-   Part 2. Amend 2011 tax return online Figure your gain or loss from foreclosure or repossession. Amend 2011 tax return online   4. Amend 2011 tax return online If you completed Part 1, enter the smaller of line 1 or line 2. Amend 2011 tax return online If you did not complete Part 1, enter the outstanding debt immediately before the transfer of property   5. Amend 2011 tax return online Enter any proceeds you received from the foreclosure sale   6. Amend 2011 tax return online Add lines 4 and 5   7. Amend 2011 tax return online Enter the adjusted basis of the transferred property   8. Amend 2011 tax return online Gain or loss from foreclosure or repossession. Amend 2011 tax return online Subtract line 7  from line 6   * The income may not be taxable. Amend 2011 tax return online See Cancellation of debt . Amend 2011 tax return online    You can use Worksheet 8-1 to figure your gain or loss from a foreclosure or repossession. Amend 2011 tax return online Amount realized on a nonrecourse debt. Amend 2011 tax return online   If you are not personally liable for repaying the debt (nonrecourse debt) secured by the transferred property, the amount you realize includes the full amount of the debt canceled by the transfer. Amend 2011 tax return online The full canceled debt is included in the amount realized even if the fair market value of the property is less than the canceled debt. Amend 2011 tax return online Example 1. Amend 2011 tax return online Ann paid $200,000 for land used in her farming business. Amend 2011 tax return online She paid $15,000 down and borrowed the remaining $185,000 from a bank. Amend 2011 tax return online Ann is not personally liable for the loan (nonrecourse debt), but pledges the land as security. Amend 2011 tax return online The bank foreclosed on the loan 2 years after Ann stopped making payments. Amend 2011 tax return online When the bank foreclosed, the balance due on the loan was $180,000 and the FMV of the land was $170,000. Amend 2011 tax return online The amount Ann realized on the foreclosure was $180,000, the debt canceled by the foreclosure. Amend 2011 tax return online She figures her gain or loss on Form 4797, Part I, by comparing the amount realized ($180,000) with her adjusted basis ($200,000). Amend 2011 tax return online She has a $20,000 deductible loss. Amend 2011 tax return online Example 2. Amend 2011 tax return online Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except the FMV of the land was $210,000. Amend 2011 tax return online The result is the same. Amend 2011 tax return online The amount Ann realized on the foreclosure is $180,000, the debt canceled by the foreclosure. Amend 2011 tax return online Because her adjusted basis is $200,000, she has a deductible loss of $20,000, which she reports on Form 4797, Part I. Amend 2011 tax return online Amount realized on a recourse debt. Amend 2011 tax return online   If you are personally liable for the debt (recourse debt), the amount realized on the foreclosure or repossession includes the lesser of: The outstanding debt immediately before the transfer reduced by any amount for which you remain personally liable immediately after the transfer, or The fair market value of the transferred property. Amend 2011 tax return online   You are treated as receiving ordinary income from the canceled debt for the part of the debt that is more than the fair market value. Amend 2011 tax return online The amount realized does not include the canceled debt that is your income from cancellation of debt. Amend 2011 tax return online See Cancellation of debt , later. Amend 2011 tax return online Example 3. Amend 2011 tax return online Assume the same facts as in Example 1 above except Ann is personally liable for the loan (recourse debt). Amend 2011 tax return online In this case, the amount she realizes is $170,000. Amend 2011 tax return online This is the canceled debt ($180,000) up to the FMV of the land ($170,000). Amend 2011 tax return online Ann figures her gain or loss on the foreclosure by comparing the amount realized ($170,000) with her adjusted basis ($200,000). Amend 2011 tax return online She has a $30,000 deductible loss, which she figures on Form 4797, Part I. Amend 2011 tax return online She is also treated as receiving ordinary income from cancellation of debt. Amend 2011 tax return online That income is $10,000 ($180,000 − $170,000). Amend 2011 tax return online This is the part of the canceled debt not included in the amount realized. Amend 2011 tax return online She reports this as other income on Schedule F, line 8. Amend 2011 tax return online Seller's (lender's) gain or loss on repossession. Amend 2011 tax return online   If you finance a buyer's purchase of property and later acquire an interest in it through foreclosure or repossession, you may have a gain or loss on the acquisition. Amend 2011 tax return online For more information, see Repossession in Publication 537, Installment Sales. Amend 2011 tax return online Cancellation of debt. Amend 2011 tax return online   If property that is repossessed or foreclosed upon secures a debt for which you are personally liable (recourse debt), you generally must report as ordinary income the amount by which the canceled debt is more than the FMV of the property. Amend 2011 tax return online This income is separate from any gain or loss realized from the foreclosure or repossession. Amend 2011 tax return online Report the income from cancellation of a business debt on Schedule F, line 8. Amend 2011 tax return online Report the income from cancellation of a nonbusiness debt as miscellaneous income on Form 1040. Amend 2011 tax return online    You can use Worksheet 8-1 to figure your income from cancellation of debt. Amend 2011 tax return online   However, income from cancellation of debt is not taxed if any of the following apply. Amend 2011 tax return online The cancellation is intended as a gift. Amend 2011 tax return online The debt is qualified farm debt (see chapter 3). Amend 2011 tax return online The debt is qualified real property business debt (see chapter 5 of Publication 334). Amend 2011 tax return online You are insolvent or bankrupt (see  chapter 3). Amend 2011 tax return online The debt is qualified principal residence indebtedness (see chapter 3). Amend 2011 tax return online   Use Form 982 to report the income exclusion. Amend 2011 tax return online Abandonment The abandonment of property is a disposition of property. Amend 2011 tax return online You abandon property when you voluntarily and permanently give up possession and use of the property with the intention of ending your ownership, but without passing it on to anyone else. Amend 2011 tax return online Business or investment property. Amend 2011 tax return online   Loss from abandonment of business or investment property is deductible as a loss. Amend 2011 tax return online Loss from abandonment of business or investment property that is not treated as a sale or exchange generally is an ordinary loss. Amend 2011 tax return online If your adjusted basis is more than the amount you realize (if any), then you have a loss. Amend 2011 tax return online If the amount you realize (if any) is more than your adjusted basis, then you have a gain. Amend 2011 tax return online This rule also applies to leasehold improvements the lessor made for the lessee. Amend 2011 tax return online However, if the property is foreclosed on or repossessed in lieu of abandonment, gain or loss is figured as discussed earlier under Foreclosure or Repossession . Amend 2011 tax return online   If the abandoned property is secured by debt, special rules apply. Amend 2011 tax return online The tax consequences of abandonment of property that secures a debt depend on whether you are personally liable for the debt (recourse debt) or were not personally liable for the debt (nonrecourse debt). Amend 2011 tax return online For more information, see chapter 3 of Publication 4681, Canceled Debts, Foreclosures, Repossessions, and Abandonments (for Individuals). Amend 2011 tax return online The abandonment loss is deducted in the tax year in which the loss is sustained. Amend 2011 tax return online Report the loss on Form 4797, Part II, line 10. Amend 2011 tax return online Personal-use property. Amend 2011 tax return online   You cannot deduct any loss from abandonment of your home or other property held for personal use. Amend 2011 tax return online Canceled debt. Amend 2011 tax return online   If the abandoned property secures a debt for which you are personally liable and the debt is canceled, you will realize ordinary income equal to the canceled debt. Amend 2011 tax return online This income is separate from any loss realized from abandonment of the property. Amend 2011 tax return online Report income from cancellation of a debt related to a business or rental activity as business or rental income. Amend 2011 tax return online Report income from cancellation of a nonbusiness debt as miscellaneous income on Form 1040. Amend 2011 tax return online   However, income from cancellation of debt is not taxed in certain circumstances. Amend 2011 tax return online See Cancellation of debt earlier under Foreclosure or Repossession . Amend 2011 tax return online Forms 1099-A and 1099-C. Amend 2011 tax return online   A lender who acquires an interest in your property in a foreclosure, repossession, or abandonment should send you Form 1099-A showing the information you need to figure your loss from the foreclosure, repossession, or abandonment. Amend 2011 tax return online However, if the lender cancels part of your debt and the lender must file Form 1099-C, the lender may include the information about the foreclosure, repossession, or abandonment on that form instead of Form 1099-A. Amend 2011 tax return online The lender must file Form 1099-C and send you a copy if the canceled debt is $600 or more and the lender is a financial institution, credit union, federal government agency, or any organization that has a significant trade or business of lending money. Amend 2011 tax return online For foreclosures, repossessions, abandonments of property, and debt cancellations occurring in 2013, these forms should be sent to you by January 31, 2014. 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