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1040ez Tax File

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1040ez Tax File

1040ez tax file Publication 583 - Main Content Table of Contents What New Business Owners Need To Know Forms of BusinessMore information. 1040ez tax file More information. 1040ez tax file Exception—Community Income. 1040ez tax file Exception—Qualified joint venture. 1040ez tax file More information. 1040ez tax file More information. 1040ez tax file Identification NumbersEmployer Identification Number (EIN) Payee's Identification Number Tax Year Accounting Method Business TaxesIncome Tax Self-Employment Tax Employment Taxes Excise Taxes Depositing Taxes Information Returns PenaltiesWaiver of penalty. 1040ez tax file Business ExpensesBusiness Start-Up Costs Depreciation Business Use of Your Home Car and Truck Expenses RecordkeepingWhy Keep Records? Kinds of Records To Keep How Long To Keep Records Sample Record System How to Get More InformationInternal Revenue Service Small Business Administration Other Federal Agencies What New Business Owners Need To Know As a new business owner, you need to know your federal tax responsibilities. 1040ez tax file Table 1 can help you learn what those responsibilities are. 1040ez tax file Ask yourself each question listed in the table, then see the related discussion to find the answer. 1040ez tax file In addition to knowing about federal taxes, you need to make some basic business decisions. 1040ez tax file Ask yourself: What are my financial resources? What products and services will I sell? How will I market my products and services? How will I develop a strategic business plan? How will I manage my business on a day-to-day basis? How will I recruit employees? The Small Business Administration (SBA) is a federal agency that can help you answer these types of questions. 1040ez tax file For information on how to contact the SBA, see How to Get More Information, later. 1040ez tax file Forms of Business The most common forms of business are the sole proprietorship, partnership, and corporation. 1040ez tax file When beginning a business, you must decide which form of business to use. 1040ez tax file Legal and tax considerations enter into this decision. 1040ez tax file Only tax considerations are discussed in this publication. 1040ez tax file Your form of business determines which income tax return form you have to file. 1040ez tax file See Table 2 to find out which form you have to file. 1040ez tax file Sole proprietorships. 1040ez tax file   A sole proprietorship is an unincorporated business that is owned by one individual. 1040ez tax file It is the simplest form of business organization to start and maintain. 1040ez tax file The business has no existence apart from you, the owner. 1040ez tax file Its liabilities are your personal liabilities. 1040ez tax file You undertake the risks of the business for all assets owned, whether or not used in the business. 1040ez tax file You include the income and expenses of the business on your personal tax return. 1040ez tax file More information. 1040ez tax file   For more information on sole proprietorships, see Publication 334, Tax Guide for Small Business. 1040ez tax file If you are a farmer, see Publication 225, Farmer's Tax Guide. 1040ez tax file Partnerships. 1040ez tax file   A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on a trade or business. 1040ez tax file Each person contributes money, property, labor, or skill, and expects to share in the profits and losses of the business. 1040ez tax file   A partnership must file an annual information return to report the income, deductions, gains, losses, etc. 1040ez tax file , from its operations, but it does not pay income tax. 1040ez tax file Instead, it “passes through” any profits or losses to its partners. 1040ez tax file Each partner includes his or her share of the partnership's items on his or her tax return. 1040ez tax file More information. 1040ez tax file   For more information on partnerships, see Publication 541, Partnerships. 1040ez tax file Husband and wife business. 1040ez tax file   If you and your spouse jointly own and operate an unincorporated business and share in the profits and losses, you are partners in a partnership, whether or not you have a formal partnership agreement. 1040ez tax file Do not use Schedule C or C-EZ. 1040ez tax file Instead, file Form 1065, U. 1040ez tax file S. 1040ez tax file Return of Partnership Income. 1040ez tax file For more information, see Publication 541, Partnerships. 1040ez tax file Exception—Community Income. 1040ez tax file   If you and your spouse wholly own an unincorporated business as community property under the community property laws of a state, foreign country, or U. 1040ez tax file S. 1040ez tax file possession, you can treat the business either as a sole proprietorship or a partnership. 1040ez tax file The only states with community property laws are Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin. 1040ez tax file A change in your reporting position will be treated as a conversion of the entity. 1040ez tax file Exception—Qualified joint venture. 1040ez tax file   If you and your spouse each materially participate as the only members of a jointly owned and operated business, and you file a joint return for the tax year, you can make a joint election to be treated as a qualified joint venture instead of a partnership for the tax year. 1040ez tax file Making this election will allow you to avoid the complexity of Form 1065 but still give each spouse credit for social security earnings on which retirement benefits are based. 1040ez tax file For an explanation of "material participation," see the Instructions for Schedule C, line G. 1040ez tax file   To make this election, you must divide all items of income, gain, loss, deduction, and credit attributable to the business between you and your spouse in accordance with your respective interests in the venture. 1040ez tax file Each of you must file a separate Schedule C or C-EZ and a separate Schedule SE. 1040ez tax file For more information, see Qualified Joint Venture in the Instructions for Schedule SE. 1040ez tax file Corporations. 1040ez tax file   In forming a corporation, prospective shareholders exchange money, property, or both, for the corporation's capital stock. 1040ez tax file A corporation generally takes the same deductions as a sole proprietorship to figure its taxable income. 1040ez tax file A corporation can also take special deductions. 1040ez tax file   The profit of a corporation is taxed to the corporation when earned, and then is taxed to the shareholders when distributed as dividends. 1040ez tax file However, shareholders cannot deduct any loss of the corporation. 1040ez tax file More information. 1040ez tax file   For more information on corporations, see Publication 542, Corporations. 1040ez tax file S corporations. 1040ez tax file   An eligible domestic corporation can avoid double taxation (once to the corporation and again to the shareholders) by electing to be treated as an S corporation. 1040ez tax file Generally, an S corporation is exempt from federal income tax other than tax on certain capital gains and passive income. 1040ez tax file On their tax returns, the S corporation's shareholders include their share of the corporation's separately stated items of income, deduction, loss, and credit, and their share of nonseparately stated income or loss. 1040ez tax file More information. 1040ez tax file   For more information on S corporations, see the instructions for Form 2553, Election by a Small Business Corporation, and Form 1120S, U. 1040ez tax file S. 1040ez tax file Income Tax Return for an S Corporation. 1040ez tax file Limited liability company. 1040ez tax file   A limited liability company (LLC) is an entity formed under state law by filing articles of organization as an LLC. 1040ez tax file The members of an LLC are not personally liable for its debts. 1040ez tax file An LLC may be classified for federal income tax purposes as either a partnership, a corporation, or an entity disregarded as an entity separate from its owner by applying the rules in regulations section 301. 1040ez tax file 7701-3. 1040ez tax file For more information, see the instructions for Form 8832, Entity Classification Election. 1040ez tax file Identification Numbers You must have a taxpayer identification number so the IRS can process your returns. 1040ez tax file The two most common kinds of taxpayer identification numbers are the social security number (SSN) and the employer identification number (EIN). 1040ez tax file An SSN is issued to individuals by the Social Security Administration (SSA) and is in the following format: 000–00–0000. 1040ez tax file An EIN is issued to individuals (sole proprietors), partnerships, corporations, and other entities by the IRS and is in the following format: 00–0000000. 1040ez tax file You must include your taxpayer identification number (SSN or EIN) on all returns and other documents you send to the IRS. 1040ez tax file You must also furnish your number to other persons who use your identification number on any returns or documents they send to the IRS. 1040ez tax file This includes returns or documents filed to report the following information. 1040ez tax file Interest, dividends, royalties, etc. 1040ez tax file , paid to you. 1040ez tax file Any amount paid to you as a dependent care provider. 1040ez tax file Certain other amounts paid to you that total $600 or more for the year. 1040ez tax file If you do not furnish your identification number as required, you may be subject to penalties. 1040ez tax file See Penalties, later. 1040ez tax file Employer Identification Number (EIN) EINs are used to identify the tax accounts of employers, certain sole proprietors, corporations, partnerships, estates, trusts, and other entities. 1040ez tax file If you don't already have an EIN, you need to get one if you: Have employees, Have a qualified retirement plan, Operate your business as a corporation or partnership, or File returns for: Employment taxes, or Excise taxes. 1040ez tax file Applying for an EIN. 1040ez tax file   You may apply for an EIN: Online—Click on the EIN link at www. 1040ez tax file irs. 1040ez tax file gov/businesses/small. 1040ez tax file The EIN is issued immediately once the application information is validated. 1040ez tax file By telephone at 1-800-829-4933. 1040ez tax file By mailing or faxing Form SS-4, Application for Employer Identification Number. 1040ez tax file When to apply. 1040ez tax file   You should apply for an EIN early enough to receive the number by the time you must file a return or statement or make a tax deposit. 1040ez tax file If you apply by mail, file Form SS-4 at least 4 weeks before you need an EIN. 1040ez tax file If you apply by telephone or through the IRS website, you can get an EIN immediately. 1040ez tax file If you apply by fax, you can get an EIN within 4 business days. 1040ez tax file   If you do not receive your EIN by the time a return is due, file your return anyway. 1040ez tax file Write “Applied for” and the date you applied for the number in the space for the EIN. 1040ez tax file Do not use your social security number as a substitute for an EIN on your tax returns. 1040ez tax file More than one EIN. 1040ez tax file   You should have only one EIN. 1040ez tax file If you have more than one EIN and are not sure which to use, contact the Internal Revenue Service Center where you file your return. 1040ez tax file Give the numbers you have, the name and address to which each was assigned, and the address of your main place of business. 1040ez tax file The IRS will tell you which number to use. 1040ez tax file More information. 1040ez tax file   For more information about EINs, see Publication 1635, Understanding Your EIN. 1040ez tax file Payee's Identification Number In the operation of a business, you will probably make certain payments you must report on information returns (discussed later under Information Returns). 1040ez tax file The forms used to report these payments must include the payee's identification number. 1040ez tax file Employee. 1040ez tax file   If you have employees, you must get an SSN from each of them. 1040ez tax file Record the name and SSN of each employee exactly as they are shown on the employee's social security card. 1040ez tax file If the employee's name is not correct as shown on the card, the employee should request a new card from the SSA. 1040ez tax file This may occur, for example, if the employee's name has changed due to marriage or divorce. 1040ez tax file   If your employee does not have an SSN, he or she should file Form SS-5, Application for a Social Security Card, with the SSA. 1040ez tax file This form is available at SSA offices or by calling 1-800-772-1213. 1040ez tax file It is also available from the SSA website at www. 1040ez tax file ssa. 1040ez tax file gov. 1040ez tax file Other payee. 1040ez tax file   If you make payments to someone who is not your employee and you must report the payments on an information return, get that person's SSN. 1040ez tax file If you make reportable payments to an organization, such as a corporation or partnership, you must get its EIN. 1040ez tax file   To get the payee's SSN or EIN, use Form W-9, Request for Taxpayer Identification Number and Certification. 1040ez tax file This form is available from IRS offices or by calling 1-800-829-3676. 1040ez tax file It is also available from the IRS website at IRS. 1040ez tax file gov. 1040ez tax file    If the payee does not provide you with an identification number, you may have to withhold part of the payments as backup withholding. 1040ez tax file For information on backup withholding, see the Form W-9 instructions and the General Instructions for Certain Information Returns. 1040ez tax file Tax Year You must figure your taxable income and file an income tax return based on an annual accounting period called a tax year. 1040ez tax file A tax year is usually 12 consecutive months. 1040ez tax file There are two kinds of tax years. 1040ez tax file Calendar tax year. 1040ez tax file A calendar tax year is 12 consecutive months beginning January 1 and ending December 31. 1040ez tax file Fiscal tax year. 1040ez tax file A fiscal tax year is 12 consecutive months ending on the last day of any month except December. 1040ez tax file A 52-53-week tax year is a fiscal tax year that varies from 52 to 53 weeks but does not have to end on the last day of a month. 1040ez tax file If you file your first tax return using the calendar tax year and you later begin business as a sole proprietor, become a partner in a partnership, or become a shareholder in an S corporation, you must continue to use the calendar year unless you get IRS approval to change it or are otherwise allowed to change it without IRS approval. 1040ez tax file You must use a calendar tax year if: You keep no books. 1040ez tax file You have no annual accounting period. 1040ez tax file Your present tax year does not qualify as a fiscal year. 1040ez tax file You are required to use a calendar year by a provision of the Internal Revenue Code or the Income Tax Regulations. 1040ez tax file For more information, see Publication 538, Accounting Periods and Methods. 1040ez tax file First-time filer. 1040ez tax file   If you have never filed an income tax return, you can adopt either a calendar tax year or a fiscal tax year. 1040ez tax file You adopt a tax year by filing your first income tax return using that tax year. 1040ez tax file You have not adopted a tax year if you merely did any of the following. 1040ez tax file Filed an application for an extension of time to file an income tax return. 1040ez tax file Filed an application for an employer identification number. 1040ez tax file Paid estimated taxes for that tax year. 1040ez tax file Changing your tax year. 1040ez tax file   Once you have adopted your tax year, you may have to get IRS approval to change it. 1040ez tax file To get approval, you must file Form 1128, Application To Adopt, Change, or Retain a Tax Year. 1040ez tax file You may have to pay a fee. 1040ez tax file For more information, see Publication 538. 1040ez tax file Accounting Method An accounting method is a set of rules used to determine when and how income and expenses are reported. 1040ez tax file You choose an accounting method for your business when you file your first income tax return. 1040ez tax file There are two basic accounting methods. 1040ez tax file Cash method. 1040ez tax file Under the cash method, you report income in the tax year you receive it. 1040ez tax file You usually deduct or capitalize expenses in the tax year you pay them. 1040ez tax file Accrual method. 1040ez tax file Under an accrual method, you generally report income in the tax year you earn it, even though you may receive payment in a later year. 1040ez tax file You deduct or capitalize expenses in the tax year you incur them, whether or not you pay them that year. 1040ez tax file For other methods, see Publication 538. 1040ez tax file If you need inventories to show income correctly, you must generally use an accrual method of accounting for purchases and sales. 1040ez tax file Inventories include goods held for sale in the normal course of business. 1040ez tax file They also include raw materials and supplies that will physically become a part of merchandise intended for sale. 1040ez tax file Inventories are explained in Publication 538. 1040ez tax file Certain small business taxpayers can use the cash method of accounting and can also account for inventoriable items as materials and supplies that are not incidental. 1040ez tax file For more information, see Publication 538. 1040ez tax file You must use the same accounting method to figure your taxable income and to keep your books. 1040ez tax file Also, you must use an accounting method that clearly shows your income. 1040ez tax file In general, any accounting method that consistently uses accounting principles suitable for your trade or business clearly shows income. 1040ez tax file An accounting method clearly shows income only if it treats all items of gross income and expense the same from year to year. 1040ez tax file More than one business. 1040ez tax file   When you own more than one business, you can use a different accounting method for each business if the method you use for each clearly shows your income. 1040ez tax file You must keep a complete and separate set of books and records for each business. 1040ez tax file Changing your method of accounting. 1040ez tax file   Once you have set up your accounting method, you must generally get IRS approval before you can change to another method. 1040ez tax file A change in accounting method not only includes a change in your overall system of accounting, but also a change in the treatment of any material item. 1040ez tax file For examples of changes that require approval and information on how to get approval for the change, see Publication 538. 1040ez tax file Business Taxes The form of business you operate determines what taxes you must pay and how you pay them. 1040ez tax file The following are the four general kinds of business taxes. 1040ez tax file Income tax. 1040ez tax file Self-employment tax. 1040ez tax file Employment taxes. 1040ez tax file Excise taxes. 1040ez tax file See Table 2 for the forms you file to report these taxes. 1040ez tax file You may want to get Publication 509. 1040ez tax file It has tax calendars that tell you when to file returns and make tax payments. 1040ez tax file Income Tax All businesses except partnerships must file an annual income tax return. 1040ez tax file Partnerships file an information return. 1040ez tax file Which form you use depends on how your business is organized. 1040ez tax file See Table 2 to find out which return you have to file. 1040ez tax file The federal income tax is a pay-as-you-go tax. 1040ez tax file You must pay the tax as you earn or receive income during the year. 1040ez tax file An employee usually has income tax withheld from his or her pay. 1040ez tax file If you do not pay your tax through withholding, or do not pay enough tax that way, you might have to pay estimated tax. 1040ez tax file If you are not required to make estimated tax payments, you may pay any tax due when you file your return. 1040ez tax file Table 2. 1040ez tax file Which Forms Must I File? IF you are a. 1040ez tax file . 1040ez tax file . 1040ez tax file   THEN you may be liable for. 1040ez tax file . 1040ez tax file . 1040ez tax file   Use Form. 1040ez tax file . 1040ez tax file . 1040ez tax file Sole proprietor   Income tax   1040 and Schedule C 1 or C-EZ (Schedule F 1 for farm business)     Self-employment tax   1040 and Schedule SE     Estimated tax   1040-ES     Employment taxes:         • Social security and Medicare   taxes and income tax   withholding   941 or 944 (943 for farm employees)     • Federal unemployment (FUTA)   tax   940     Excise taxes   See Excise Taxes Partnership   Annual return of income   1065     Employment taxes   Same as sole proprietor     Excise taxes   See Excise Taxes Partner in a partnership (individual)   Income tax   1040 and Schedule E 2     Self-employment tax   1040 and Schedule SE     Estimated tax   1040-ES Corporation or S corporation   Income tax   1120 (corporation) 2  1120S (S corporation) 2     Estimated tax   1120-W (corporation only)     Employment taxes   Same as sole proprietor     Excise taxes   See Excise Taxes S corporation shareholder   Income tax   1040 and Schedule E 2     Estimated tax   1040-ES 1 File a separate schedule for each business. 1040ez tax file 2 Various other schedules may be needed. 1040ez tax file Estimated tax. 1040ez tax file   Generally, you must pay taxes on income, including self-employment tax (discussed next), by making regular payments of estimated tax during the year. 1040ez tax file Sole proprietors, partners, and S corporation shareholders. 1040ez tax file   You generally have to make estimated tax payments if you expect to owe tax of $1,000 or more when you file your return. 1040ez tax file Use Form 1040-ES, Estimated Tax for Individuals, to figure and pay your estimated tax. 1040ez tax file For more information, see Publication 505, Tax Withholding and Estimated Tax. 1040ez tax file Corporations. 1040ez tax file   You generally have to make estimated tax payments for your corporation if you expect it to owe tax of $500 or more when you file its return. 1040ez tax file Use Form 1120-W, Estimated Tax for Corporations, to figure the estimated tax. 1040ez tax file You must deposit the payments as explained later under Depositing Taxes. 1040ez tax file For more information, see Publication 542. 1040ez tax file Self-Employment Tax Self-employment tax (SE tax) is a social security and Medicare tax primarily for individuals who work for themselves. 1040ez tax file Your payments of SE tax contribute to your coverage under the social security system. 1040ez tax file Social security coverage provides you with retirement benefits, disability benefits, survivor benefits, and hospital insurance (Medicare) benefits. 1040ez tax file You must pay SE tax and file Schedule SE (Form 1040) if either of the following applies. 1040ez tax file Your net earnings from self-employment were $400 or more. 1040ez tax file You had church employee income of $108. 1040ez tax file 28 or more. 1040ez tax file Use Schedule SE (Form 1040) to figure your SE tax. 1040ez tax file For more information, see Publication 334, Tax Guide for Small Business. 1040ez tax file You can deduct a portion of your SE tax as an adjustment to income on your Form 1040. 1040ez tax file The Social Security Administration (SSA) time limit for posting self-employment income. 1040ez tax file   Generally, the SSA will give you credit only for self-employment income reported on a tax return filed within 3 years, 3 months, and 15 days after the tax year you earned the income. 1040ez tax file If you file your tax return or report a change in your self-employment income after this time limit, the SSA may change its records, but only to remove or reduce the amount. 1040ez tax file The SSA will not change its records to increase your self-employment income. 1040ez tax file Employment Taxes This section briefly discusses the employment taxes you must pay, the forms you must file to report them, and other forms that must be filed when you have employees. 1040ez tax file Employment taxes include the following. 1040ez tax file Social security and Medicare taxes. 1040ez tax file Federal income tax withholding. 1040ez tax file Federal unemployment (FUTA) tax. 1040ez tax file If you have employees, you will need to get Publication 15, Circular E, Employer's Tax Guide. 1040ez tax file If you have agricultural employees, get Publication 51, Circular A, Agricultural Employer's Tax Guide. 1040ez tax file These publications explain your tax responsibilities as an employer. 1040ez tax file If you are not sure whether the people working for you are your employees, see Publication 15-A, Employer's Supplemental Tax Guide. 1040ez tax file That publication has information to help you determine whether an individual is an employee or an independent contractor. 1040ez tax file If you classify an employee as an independent contractor, you can be held liable for employment taxes for that worker plus a penalty. 1040ez tax file An independent contractor is someone who is self-employed. 1040ez tax file Generally, you do not have to withhold or pay any taxes on payments to an independent contractor. 1040ez tax file Federal Income, Social Security, and Medicare Taxes You generally must withhold federal income tax from your employee's wages. 1040ez tax file To figure how much federal income tax to withhold from each wage payment, use the employee's Form W-4 (discussed later under Hiring Employees) and the methods described in Publication 15. 1040ez tax file Social security and Medicare taxes pay for benefits that workers and their families receive under the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA). 1040ez tax file Social security tax pays for benefits under the old-age, survivors, and disability insurance part of FICA. 1040ez tax file Medicare tax pays for benefits under the hospital insurance part of FICA. 1040ez tax file You withhold part of these taxes from your employee's wages and you pay a part yourself. 1040ez tax file To find out how much social security and Medicare tax to withhold and to pay, see Publication 15. 1040ez tax file Which form do I file?   Report these taxes on Form 941, Employer's QUARTERLY Federal Tax Return, or Form 944, Employer's ANNUAL Federal Tax Return. 1040ez tax file (Farm employers use Form 943, Employer's Annual Federal Tax Return for Agricultural Employees. 1040ez tax file ) Federal Unemployment (FUTA) Tax The federal unemployment tax is part of the federal and state program under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA) that pays unemployment compensation to workers who lose their jobs. 1040ez tax file You report and pay FUTA tax separately from social security and Medicare taxes and withheld income tax. 1040ez tax file You pay FUTA tax only from your own funds. 1040ez tax file Employees do not pay this tax or have it withheld from their pay. 1040ez tax file Which form do I file?   Report federal unemployment tax on Form 940, Employer's Annual Federal Unemployment (FUTA) Tax Return. 1040ez tax file See Publication 15 to find out if you can use this form. 1040ez tax file Hiring Employees Have the employees you hire fill out Form I-9 and Form W-4. 1040ez tax file Form I-9. 1040ez tax file   You must verify that each new employee is legally eligible to work in the United States. 1040ez tax file Both you and the employee must complete the U. 1040ez tax file S. 1040ez tax file Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) Form I-9, Employment Eligibility Verification. 1040ez tax file You can get the form from USCIS offices or from the USCIS website at www. 1040ez tax file uscis. 1040ez tax file gov. 1040ez tax file Call the USCIS at 1-800-375-5283 for more information about your responsibilities. 1040ez tax file Form W-4. 1040ez tax file   Each employee must fill out Form W-4, Employee's Withholding Allowance Certificate. 1040ez tax file You will use the filing status and withholding allowances shown on this form to figure the amount of income tax to withhold from your employee's wages. 1040ez tax file For more information, see Publication 15. 1040ez tax file Employees claiming more than 10 withholding allowances. 1040ez tax file   An employer of an employee who claims more than 10 withholding allowances for wages paid can use several methods of withholding. 1040ez tax file See section 16 of Publication 15. 1040ez tax file Form W-2 Wage Reporting After the calendar year is over, you must furnish copies of Form W-2, Wage and Tax Statement, to each employee to whom you paid wages during the year. 1040ez tax file You must also send copies to the Social Security Administration. 1040ez tax file See Information Returns, later, for more information on Form W-2. 1040ez tax file Excise Taxes This section describes the excise taxes you may have to pay and the forms you have to file if you do any of the following. 1040ez tax file Manufacture or sell certain products. 1040ez tax file Operate certain kinds of businesses. 1040ez tax file Use various kinds of equipment, facilities, or products. 1040ez tax file Receive payment for certain services. 1040ez tax file For more information on excise taxes, see Publication 510, Excise Taxes. 1040ez tax file Form 720. 1040ez tax file   The federal excise taxes reported on Form 720, Quarterly Federal Excise Tax Return, consist of several broad categories of taxes, including the following. 1040ez tax file Environmental taxes. 1040ez tax file Communications and air transportation taxes. 1040ez tax file Fuel taxes. 1040ez tax file Tax on the first retail sale of heavy trucks, trailers, and tractors. 1040ez tax file Manufacturers taxes on the sale or use of a variety of different articles. 1040ez tax file Form 2290. 1040ez tax file   There is a federal excise tax on certain trucks, truck tractors, and buses used on public highways. 1040ez tax file The tax applies to vehicles having a taxable gross weight of 55,000 pounds or more. 1040ez tax file Report the tax on Form 2290, Heavy Highway Vehicle Use Tax Return. 1040ez tax file For more information, see the instructions for Form 2290. 1040ez tax file Form 730. 1040ez tax file   If you are in the business of accepting wagers or conducting a wagering pool or lottery, you may be liable for the federal excise tax on wagering. 1040ez tax file Use Form 730, Monthly Tax Return for Wagers, to figure the tax on the wagers you receive. 1040ez tax file Form 11-C. 1040ez tax file   Use Form 11-C, Occupational Tax and Registration Return for Wagering, to register for any wagering activity and to pay the federal occupational tax on wagering. 1040ez tax file Depositing Taxes You generally have to deposit employment taxes, certain excise taxes, corporate income tax, and S corporation taxes before you file your return. 1040ez tax file Generally, taxpayers are required to deposit taxes through the Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS). 1040ez tax file Any business that has a federal tax obligation and requests a new EIN will automatically be enrolled in EFTPS. 1040ez tax file Through the mail, the business will receive an EFTPS PIN package that contains instructions for activating its EFTPS enrollment. 1040ez tax file Information Returns If you make or receive payments in your business, you may have to report them to the IRS on information returns. 1040ez tax file The IRS compares the payments shown on the information returns with each person's income tax return to see if the payments were included in income. 1040ez tax file You must give a copy of each information return you are required to file to the recipient or payer. 1040ez tax file In addition to the forms described below, you may have to use other returns to report certain kinds of payments or transactions. 1040ez tax file For more details on information returns and when you have to file them, see the General Instructions for Certain Information Returns. 1040ez tax file Form 1099-MISC. 1040ez tax file   Use Form 1099-MISC, Miscellaneous Income, to report certain payments you make in your trade or business. 1040ez tax file These payments include the following items. 1040ez tax file Payments of $600 or more for services performed for your business by people not treated as your employees, such as subcontractors, attorneys, accountants, or directors. 1040ez tax file Rent payments of $600 or more, other than rents paid to real estate agents. 1040ez tax file Prizes and awards of $600 or more that are not for services, such as winnings on TV or radio shows. 1040ez tax file Royalty payments of $10 or more. 1040ez tax file Payments to certain crew members by operators of fishing boats. 1040ez tax file You also use Form 1099-MISC to report your sales of $5,000 or more of consumer goods to a person for resale anywhere other than in a permanent retail establishment. 1040ez tax file Form W-2. 1040ez tax file   You must file Form W-2, Wage and Tax Statement, to report payments to your employees, such as wages, tips, and other compensation, withheld income, social security, and Medicare taxes. 1040ez tax file For more information on what to report on Form W-2, see the Instructions for Forms W-2 and W-3. 1040ez tax file Form 8300. 1040ez tax file   You must file Form 8300, Report of Cash Payments Over $10,000 Received in a Trade or Business, if you receive more than $10,000 in cash in one transaction or two or more related business transactions. 1040ez tax file Cash includes U. 1040ez tax file S. 1040ez tax file and foreign coin and currency. 1040ez tax file It also includes certain monetary instruments such as cashier's and traveler's checks and money orders. 1040ez tax file For more information, see Publication 1544, Reporting Cash Payments of Over $10,000 (Received in a Trade or Business). 1040ez tax file Penalties The law provides penalties for not filing returns or paying taxes as required. 1040ez tax file Criminal penalties may be imposed for willful failure to file, tax evasion, or making a false statement. 1040ez tax file Failure to file tax returns. 1040ez tax file   If you do not file your tax return by the due date, you may have to pay a penalty. 1040ez tax file The penalty is based on the tax not paid by the due date. 1040ez tax file See your tax return instructions for more information about this penalty. 1040ez tax file Failure to pay tax. 1040ez tax file   If you do not pay your taxes by the due date, you will have to pay a penalty for each month, or part of a month, that your taxes are not paid. 1040ez tax file For more information, see your tax return instructions. 1040ez tax file Failure to withhold, deposit, or pay taxes. 1040ez tax file   If you do not withhold income, social security, or Medicare taxes from employees, or if you withhold taxes but do not deposit them or pay them to the IRS, you may be subject to a penalty of the unpaid tax, plus interest. 1040ez tax file You may also be subject to penalties if you deposit the taxes late. 1040ez tax file For more information, see Publication 15. 1040ez tax file Failure to follow information reporting requirements. 1040ez tax file   The following penalties apply if you are required to file information returns. 1040ez tax file For more information, see the General Instructions for Certain Information Returns. 1040ez tax file Failure to file information returns. 1040ez tax file A penalty applies if you do not file information returns by the due date, if you do not include all required information, or if you report incorrect information. 1040ez tax file Failure to furnish correct payee statements. 1040ez tax file A penalty applies if you do not furnish a required statement to a payee by the due date, if you do not include all required information, or if you report incorrect information. 1040ez tax file Waiver of penalty. 1040ez tax file   These penalties will not apply if you can show that the failures were due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect. 1040ez tax file   In addition, there is no penalty for failure to include all the required information, or for including incorrect information, on a de minimis number of information returns if you correct the errors by August 1 of the year the returns are due. 1040ez tax file (To be considered de minimis, the number of returns cannot exceed the greater of 10 or ½ of 1% of the total number of returns you are required to file for the year. 1040ez tax file ) Failure to supply taxpayer identification number. 1040ez tax file   If you do not include your taxpayer identification number (SSN or EIN) or the taxpayer identification number of another person where required on a return, statement, or other document, you may be subject to a penalty of $50 for each failure. 1040ez tax file You may also be subject to the $50 penalty if you do not give your taxpayer identification number to another person when it is required on a return, statement, or other document. 1040ez tax file Business Expenses You can deduct business expenses on your income tax return. 1040ez tax file These are the current operating costs of running your business. 1040ez tax file To be deductible, a business expense must be both ordinary and necessary. 1040ez tax file An ordinary expense is one that is common and accepted in your field of business, trade, or profession. 1040ez tax file A necessary expense is one that is helpful and appropriate for your business, trade, or profession. 1040ez tax file An expense does not have to be indispensable to be considered necessary. 1040ez tax file The following are brief explanations of some expenses that are of interest to people starting a business. 1040ez tax file There are many other expenses that you may be able to deduct. 1040ez tax file See your form instructions and Publication 535, Business Expenses. 1040ez tax file Business Start-Up Costs Business start-up costs are the expenses you incur before you actually begin business operations. 1040ez tax file Your business start-up costs will depend on the type of business you are starting. 1040ez tax file They may include costs for advertising, travel, surveys, and training. 1040ez tax file These costs are generally capital expenses. 1040ez tax file You usually recover costs for a particular asset (such as machinery or office equipment) through depreciation (discussed next). 1040ez tax file You can elect to deduct up to $5,000 of business start-up costs and $5,000 of organizational costs paid or incurred after October 22, 2004. 1040ez tax file The $5,000 deduction is reduced by the amount your total start-up or organizational costs exceed $50,000. 1040ez tax file Any remaining cost must be amortized. 1040ez tax file For more information about amortizing start-up and organizational costs, see chapter 7 in Publication 535. 1040ez tax file Depreciation If property you acquire to use in your business has a useful life that extends substantially beyond the year it is placed in service, you generally cannot deduct the entire cost as a business expense in the year you acquire it. 1040ez tax file You must spread the cost over more than one tax year and deduct part of it each year. 1040ez tax file This method of deducting the cost of business property is called depreciation. 1040ez tax file Business property you must depreciate includes the following items. 1040ez tax file Office furniture. 1040ez tax file Buildings. 1040ez tax file Machinery and equipment. 1040ez tax file You can choose to deduct a limited amount of the cost of certain depreciable property in the year you place the property in service. 1040ez tax file This deduction is known as the “section 179 deduction. 1040ez tax file ” For more information about depreciation and the section 179 deduction, see Publication 946, How To Depreciate Property. 1040ez tax file Depreciation must be taken in the year it is allowable. 1040ez tax file Allowable depreciation not taken in a prior year cannot be taken in the current year. 1040ez tax file If you do not deduct the correct depreciation, you may be able to make a correction by filing Form 1040X, Amended U. 1040ez tax file S. 1040ez tax file Individual Income Tax Return, or by changing your accounting method. 1040ez tax file For more information on how to correct depreciation deductions, see chapter 1 in Publication 946. 1040ez tax file Business Use of Your Home To deduct expenses related to the business use of part of your home, you must meet specific requirements. 1040ez tax file Even then, your deduction may be limited. 1040ez tax file To qualify to claim expenses for business use of your home, you must meet both the following tests. 1040ez tax file Your use of the business part of your home must be: Exclusive (however, see Exceptions to exclusive use, later), Regular, For your trade or business, AND The business part of your home must be one of the following: Your principal place of business (defined later), A place where you meet or deal with patients, clients, or customers in the normal course of your trade or business, or A separate structure (not attached to your home) you use in connection with your trade or business. 1040ez tax file Exclusive use. 1040ez tax file   To qualify under the exclusive use test, you must use a specific area of your home only for your trade or business. 1040ez tax file The area used for business can be a room or other separately identifiable space. 1040ez tax file The space does not need to be marked off by a permanent partition. 1040ez tax file   You do not meet the requirements of the exclusive use test if you use the area in question both for business and for personal purposes. 1040ez tax file Exceptions to exclusive use. 1040ez tax file   You do not have to meet the exclusive use test if either of the following applies. 1040ez tax file You use part of your home for the storage of inventory or product samples. 1040ez tax file You use part of your home as a daycare facility. 1040ez tax file For an explanation of these exceptions, see Publication 587, Business Use of Your Home (Including Use by Daycare Providers). 1040ez tax file Principal place of business. 1040ez tax file   Your home office will qualify as your principal place of business for deducting expenses for its use if you meet the following requirements. 1040ez tax file You use it exclusively and regularly for administrative or management activities of your trade or business. 1040ez tax file You have no other fixed location where you conduct substantial administrative or management activities of your trade or business. 1040ez tax file   Alternatively, if you use your home exclusively and regularly for your business, but your home office does not qualify as your principal place of business based on the previous rules, you determine your principal place of business based on the following factors. 1040ez tax file The relative importance of the activities performed at each location. 1040ez tax file If the relative importance factor does not determine your principal place of business, the time spent at each location. 1040ez tax file    If, after considering your business locations, your home cannot be identified as your principal place of business, you cannot deduct home office expenses. 1040ez tax file However, for other ways to qualify to deduct home office expenses, see Publication 587. 1040ez tax file Which form do I file?   If you file Schedule C (Form 1040), use Form 8829, Expenses for Business Use of Your Home, to figure your deduction. 1040ez tax file If you file Schedule F (Form 1040) or you are a partner, you can use the worksheet in Publication 587. 1040ez tax file More information. 1040ez tax file   For more information about business use of your home, see Publication 587. 1040ez tax file Car and Truck Expenses If you use your car or truck in your business, you can deduct the costs of operating and maintaining it. 1040ez tax file You generally can deduct either your actual expenses or the standard mileage rate. 1040ez tax file Actual expenses. 1040ez tax file   If you deduct actual expenses, you can deduct the cost of the following items: Depreciation Lease payments Registration Garage rent Licenses Repairs Gas Oil Tires Insurance Parking fees Tolls   If you use your vehicle for both business and personal purposes, you must divide your expenses between business and personal use. 1040ez tax file You can divide your expenses based on the miles driven for each purpose. 1040ez tax file Example. 1040ez tax file You are the sole proprietor of a flower shop. 1040ez tax file You drove your van 20,000 miles during the year. 1040ez tax file 16,000 miles were for delivering flowers to customers and 4,000 miles were for personal use. 1040ez tax file You can claim only 80% (16,000 ÷ 20,000) of the cost of operating your van as a business expense. 1040ez tax file Standard mileage rate. 1040ez tax file   Instead of figuring actual expenses, you may be able to use the standard mileage rate to figure the deductible costs of operating your car, van, pickup, or panel truck for business purposes. 1040ez tax file You can use the standard mileage rate for a vehicle you own or lease. 1040ez tax file The standard mileage rate is a specified amount of money you can deduct for each business mile you drive. 1040ez tax file It is announced annually by the IRS. 1040ez tax file To figure your deduction, multiply your business miles by the standard mileage rate for the year. 1040ez tax file    Generally, if you use the standard mileage rate, you cannot deduct your actual expenses. 1040ez tax file However, you may be able to deduct business-related parking fees, tolls, interest on your car loan, and certain state and local taxes. 1040ez tax file Choosing the standard mileage rate. 1040ez tax file   If you want to use the standard mileage rate for a car you own, you must choose to use it in the first year the car is available for use in your business. 1040ez tax file In later years, you can choose to use either the standard mileage rate or actual expenses. 1040ez tax file   If you use the standard mileage rate for a car you lease, you must choose to use it for the entire lease period (including renewals). 1040ez tax file Additional information. 1040ez tax file   For more information about the rules for claiming car and truck expenses, see Publication 463, Travel, Entertainment, Gift, and Car Expenses. 1040ez tax file Recordkeeping This part explains why you must keep records, what kinds of records you must keep, and how to keep them. 1040ez tax file It also explains how long you must keep your records for federal tax purposes. 1040ez tax file A sample recordkeeping system is illustrated at the end of this part. 1040ez tax file Why Keep Records? Everyone in business must keep records. 1040ez tax file Good records will help you do the following. 1040ez tax file Monitor the progress of your business. 1040ez tax file   You need good records to monitor the progress of your business. 1040ez tax file Records can show whether your business is improving, which items are selling, or what changes you need to make. 1040ez tax file Good records can increase the likelihood of business success. 1040ez tax file Prepare your financial statements. 1040ez tax file   You need good records to prepare accurate financial statements. 1040ez tax file These include income (profit and loss) statements and balance sheets. 1040ez tax file These statements can help you in dealing with your bank or creditors and help you manage your business. 1040ez tax file An income statement shows the income and expenses of the business for a given period of time. 1040ez tax file A balance sheet shows the assets, liabilities, and your equity in the business on a given date. 1040ez tax file Identify source of receipts. 1040ez tax file   You will receive money or property from many sources. 1040ez tax file Your records can identify the source of your receipts. 1040ez tax file You need this information to separate business from nonbusiness receipts and taxable from nontaxable income. 1040ez tax file Keep track of deductible expenses. 1040ez tax file   You may forget expenses when you prepare your tax return unless you record them when they occur. 1040ez tax file Prepare your tax returns. 1040ez tax file   You need good records to prepare your tax returns. 1040ez tax file These records must support the income, expenses, and credits you report. 1040ez tax file Generally, these are the same records you use to monitor your business and prepare your financial statements. 1040ez tax file Support items reported on tax returns. 1040ez tax file   You must keep your business records available at all times for inspection by the IRS. 1040ez tax file If the IRS examines any of your tax returns, you may be asked to explain the items reported. 1040ez tax file A complete set of records will speed up the examination. 1040ez tax file Kinds of Records To Keep Except in a few cases, the law does not require any specific kind of records. 1040ez tax file You can choose any recordkeeping system suited to your business that clearly shows your income and expenses. 1040ez tax file The business you are in affects the type of records you need to keep for federal tax purposes. 1040ez tax file You should set up your recordkeeping system using an accounting method that clearly shows your income for your tax year. 1040ez tax file See Accounting Method, earlier. 1040ez tax file If you are in more than one business, you should keep a complete and separate set of records for each business. 1040ez tax file A corporation should keep minutes of board of directors' meetings. 1040ez tax file Your recordkeeping system should include a summary of your business transactions. 1040ez tax file This summary is ordinarily made in your books (for example, accounting journals and ledgers). 1040ez tax file Your books must show your gross income, as well as your deductions and credits. 1040ez tax file For most small businesses, the business checkbook (discussed later) is the main source for entries in the business books. 1040ez tax file In addition, you must keep supporting documents, explained later. 1040ez tax file Electronic records. 1040ez tax file   All requirements that apply to hard copy books and records also apply to electronic storage systems that maintain tax books and records. 1040ez tax file When you replace hard copy books and records, you must maintain the electronic storage systems for as long as they are material to the administration of tax law. 1040ez tax file An electronic storage system is any system for preparing or keeping your records either by electronic imaging or by transfer to an electronic storage media. 1040ez tax file The electronic storage system must index, store, preserve, retrieve and reproduce the electronically stored books and records in legible format. 1040ez tax file All electronic storage systems must provide a complete and accurate record of your data that is accessible to the IRS. 1040ez tax file Electronic storage systems are also subject to the same controls and retention guidelines as those imposed on your original hard copy books and records. 1040ez tax file   The original hard copy books and records may be destroyed provided that the electronic storage system has been tested to establish that the hard copy books and records are being reproduced in compliance with IRS requirements for an electronic storage system and procedures are established to ensure continued compliance with all applicable rules and regulations. 1040ez tax file You still have the responsibility of retaining any other books and records that are required to be retained. 1040ez tax file   The IRS may test your electronic storage system, including the equipment used, indexing methodology, software and retrieval capabilities. 1040ez tax file This test is not considered an examination and the results must be shared with you. 1040ez tax file If your electronic storage system meets the requirements mentioned earlier, you will be in compliance. 1040ez tax file If not, you may be subject to penalties for non-compliance, unless you continue to maintain your original hard copy books and records in a manner that allows you and the IRS to determine your correct tax. 1040ez tax file For details on electronic storage system requirements, see Revenue Procedure 97-22, available in Internal Revenue Bulletin 1997-13. 1040ez tax file Supporting Documents Purchases, sales, payroll, and other transactions you have in your business generate supporting documents. 1040ez tax file Supporting documents include sales slips, paid bills, invoices, receipts, deposit slips, and canceled checks. 1040ez tax file These documents contain information you need to record in your books. 1040ez tax file It is important to keep these documents because they support the entries in your books and on your tax return. 1040ez tax file Keep them in an orderly fashion and in a safe place. 1040ez tax file For instance, organize them by year and type of income or expense. 1040ez tax file Gross receipts. 1040ez tax file   Gross receipts are the income you receive from your business. 1040ez tax file You should keep supporting documents that show the amounts and sources of your gross receipts. 1040ez tax file Documents that show gross receipts include the following. 1040ez tax file Cash register tapes. 1040ez tax file Bank deposit slips. 1040ez tax file Receipt books. 1040ez tax file Invoices. 1040ez tax file Credit card charge slips. 1040ez tax file Forms 1099-MISC. 1040ez tax file Purchases. 1040ez tax file   Purchases are the items you buy and resell to customers. 1040ez tax file If you are a manufacturer or producer, this includes the cost of all raw materials or parts purchased for manufacture into finished products. 1040ez tax file Your supporting documents should show the amount paid and that the amount was for purchases. 1040ez tax file Documents for purchases include the following. 1040ez tax file Canceled checks. 1040ez tax file Cash register tape receipts. 1040ez tax file Credit card sales slips. 1040ez tax file Invoices. 1040ez tax file These records will help you determine the value of your inventory at the end of the year. 1040ez tax file See Publication 538 for information on methods for valuing inventory. 1040ez tax file Expenses. 1040ez tax file   Expenses are the costs you incur (other than purchases) to carry on your business. 1040ez tax file Your supporting documents should show the amount paid and that the amount was for a business expense. 1040ez tax file Documents for expenses include the following. 1040ez tax file Canceled checks. 1040ez tax file Cash register tapes. 1040ez tax file Account statements. 1040ez tax file Credit card sales slips. 1040ez tax file Invoices. 1040ez tax file Petty cash slips for small cash payments. 1040ez tax file    A petty cash fund allows you to make small payments without having to write checks for small amounts. 1040ez tax file Each time you make a payment from this fund, you should make out a petty cash slip and attach it to your receipt as proof of payment. 1040ez tax file Travel, transportation, entertainment, and gift expenses. 1040ez tax file   Specific recordkeeping rules apply to these expenses. 1040ez tax file For more information, see Publication 463. 1040ez tax file Employment taxes. 1040ez tax file   There are specific employment tax records you must keep. 1040ez tax file For a list, see Publication 15. 1040ez tax file Assets. 1040ez tax file   Assets are the property, such as machinery and furniture you own and use in your business. 1040ez tax file You must keep records to verify certain information about your business assets. 1040ez tax file You need records to figure the annual depreciation and the gain or loss when you sell the assets. 1040ez tax file Your records should show the following information. 1040ez tax file When and how you acquired the asset. 1040ez tax file Purchase price. 1040ez tax file Cost of any improvements. 1040ez tax file Section 179 deduction taken. 1040ez tax file Deductions taken for depreciation. 1040ez tax file Deductions taken for casualty losses, such as losses resulting from fires or storms. 1040ez tax file How you used the asset. 1040ez tax file When and how you disposed of the asset. 1040ez tax file Selling price. 1040ez tax file Expenses of sale. 1040ez tax file   The following documents may show this information. 1040ez tax file Purchase and sales invoices. 1040ez tax file Real estate closing statements. 1040ez tax file Canceled checks. 1040ez tax file What if I don't have a canceled check?   If you do not have a canceled check, you may be able to prove payment with certain financial account statements prepared by financial institutions. 1040ez tax file These include account statements prepared for the financial institution by a third party. 1040ez tax file These account statements must be highly legible. 1040ez tax file The following table lists acceptable account statements. 1040ez tax file  IF payment is by. 1040ez tax file . 1040ez tax file . 1040ez tax file THEN the statement must show the. 1040ez tax file . 1040ez tax file . 1040ez tax file Check Check number. 1040ez tax file Amount. 1040ez tax file Payee's name. 1040ez tax file Date the check amount was posted to the account by the financial institution. 1040ez tax file Electronic funds transfer Amount transferred. 1040ez tax file Payee's name. 1040ez tax file Date the transfer was posted to the account by the financial institution. 1040ez tax file Credit card Amount charged. 1040ez tax file Payee's name. 1040ez tax file Transaction date. 1040ez tax file    Proof of payment of an amount, by itself, does not establish you are entitled to a tax deduction. 1040ez tax file You should also keep other documents, such as credit card sales slips and invoices, to show that you also incurred the cost. 1040ez tax file Recording Business Transactions A good recordkeeping system includes a summary of your business transactions. 1040ez tax file (Your business transactions are shown on the supporting documents just discussed. 1040ez tax file ) Business transactions are ordinarily summarized in books called journals and ledgers. 1040ez tax file You can buy them at your local stationery or office supply store. 1040ez tax file A journal is a book where you record each business transaction shown on your supporting documents. 1040ez tax file You may have to keep separate journals for transactions that occur frequently. 1040ez tax file A ledger is a book that contains the totals from all of your journals. 1040ez tax file It is organized into different accounts. 1040ez tax file Whether you keep journals and ledgers and how you keep them depends on the type of business you are in. 1040ez tax file For example, a recordkeeping system for a small business might include the following items. 1040ez tax file Business checkbook. 1040ez tax file Daily summary of cash receipts. 1040ez tax file Monthly summary of cash receipts. 1040ez tax file Check disbursements journal. 1040ez tax file Depreciation worksheet. 1040ez tax file Employee compensation record. 1040ez tax file The business checkbook is explained next. 1040ez tax file The other items are illustrated later under Sample Record System. 1040ez tax file The system you use to record business transactions will be more effective if you follow good recordkeeping practices. 1040ez tax file For example, record expenses when they occur, and identify the source of recorded receipts. 1040ez tax file Generally, it is best to record transactions on a daily basis. 1040ez tax file Business checkbook. 1040ez tax file   One of the first things you should do when you start a business is open a business checking account. 1040ez tax file You should keep your business account separate from your personal checking account. 1040ez tax file   The business checkbook is your basic source of information for recording your business expenses. 1040ez tax file You should deposit all daily receipts in your business checking account. 1040ez tax file You should check your account for errors by reconciling it. 1040ez tax file See Reconciling the checking account, later. 1040ez tax file   Consider using a checkbook that allows enough space to identify the source of deposits as business income, personal funds, or loans. 1040ez tax file You should also note on the deposit slip the source of the deposit and keep copies of all slips. 1040ez tax file   You should make all payments by check to document business expenses. 1040ez tax file Write checks payable to yourself only when making withdrawals from your business for personal use. 1040ez tax file Avoid writing checks payable to cash. 1040ez tax file If you must write a check for cash to pay a business expense, include the receipt for the cash payment in your records. 1040ez tax file If you cannot get a receipt for a cash payment, you should make an adequate explanation in your records at the time of payment. 1040ez tax file    Use the business account for business purposes only. 1040ez tax file Indicate the source of deposits and the type of expense in the checkbook. 1040ez tax file Reconciling the checking account. 1040ez tax file   When you receive your bank statement, make sure the statement, your checkbook, and your books agree. 1040ez tax file The statement balance may not agree with the balance in your checkbook and books if the statement: Includes bank charges you did not enter in your books and subtract from your checkbook balance, or Does not include deposits made after the statement date or checks that did not clear your account before the statement date. 1040ez tax file   By reconciling your checking account, you will: Verify how much money you have in the account, Make sure that your checkbook and books reflect all bank charges and the correct balance in the checking account, and Correct any errors in your bank statement, checkbook, and books. 1040ez tax file    You should reconcile your checking account each month. 1040ez tax file     Before you reconcile your monthly bank statement, check your own figures. 1040ez tax file Begin with the balance shown in your checkbook at the end of the previous month. 1040ez tax file To this balance, add the total cash deposited during the month and subtract the total cash disbursements. 1040ez tax file   After checking your figures, the result should agree with your checkbook balance at the end of the month. 1040ez tax file If the result does not agree, you may have made an error in recording a check or deposit. 1040ez tax file You can find the error by doing the following. 1040ez tax file Adding the amounts on your check stubs and comparing that total with the total in the “amount of check” column in your check disbursements journal. 1040ez tax file If the totals do not agree, check the individual amounts to see if an error was made in your check stub record or in the related entry in your check disbursements journal. 1040ez tax file Adding the deposit amounts in your checkbook. 1040ez tax file Compare that total with the monthly total in your cash receipt book, if you have one. 1040ez tax file If the totals do not agree, check the individual amounts to find any errors. 1040ez tax file   If your checkbook and journal entries still disagree, then refigure the running balance in your checkbook to make sure additions and subtractions are correct. 1040ez tax file   When your checkbook balance agrees with the balance figured from the journal entries, you may begin reconciling your checkbook with the bank statement. 1040ez tax file Many banks print a reconciliation worksheet on the back of the statement. 1040ez tax file   To reconcile your account, follow these steps. 1040ez tax file Compare the deposits listed on the bank statement with the deposits shown in your checkbook. 1040ez tax file Note all differences in the dollar amounts. 1040ez tax file Compare each canceled check, including both check number and dollar amount, with the entry in your checkbook. 1040ez tax file Note all differences in the dollar amounts. 1040ez tax file Mark the check number in the checkbook as having cleared the bank. 1040ez tax file After accounting for all checks returned by the bank, those not marked in your checkbook are your outstanding checks. 1040ez tax file Prepare a bank reconciliation. 1040ez tax file One is illustrated later under Sample Record System. 1040ez tax file Update your checkbook and journals for items shown on the reconciliation as not recorded (such as service charges) or recorded incorrectly. 1040ez tax file At this point, the adjusted bank statement balance should equal your adjusted checkbook balance. 1040ez tax file If you still have differences, check the previous steps to find the errors. 1040ez tax file   Table 3. 1040ez tax file Period of Limitations IF you. 1040ez tax file . 1040ez tax file . 1040ez tax file   THEN the period is. 1040ez tax file . 1040ez tax file . 1040ez tax file 1. 1040ez tax file Owe additional tax and situations (2), (3), and (4), below, do not apply to you   3 years 2. 1040ez tax file Do not report income that you should report and it is more than 25% of the gross income shown on the return   6 years 3. 1040ez tax file File a fraudulent return   Not limited 4. 1040ez tax file Do not file a return   Not limited 5. 1040ez tax file File a claim for credit or refund after you filed your return   Later of: 3 years or  2 years after tax   was paid 6. 1040ez tax file File a claim for a loss from worthless securities or a bad debt deduction   7 years Bookkeeping System You must decide whether to use a single-entry or a double-entry bookkeeping system. 1040ez tax file The single-entry system of bookkeeping is the simplest to maintain, but it may not be suitable for everyone. 1040ez tax file You may find the double-entry system better because it has built-in checks and balances to assure accuracy and control. 1040ez tax file Single-entry. 1040ez tax file   A single-entry system is based on the income statement (profit or loss statement). 1040ez tax file It can be a simple and practical system if you are starting a small business. 1040ez tax file The system records the flow of income and expenses through the use of: A daily summary of cash receipts, and Monthly summaries of cash receipts and disbursements. 1040ez tax file Double-entry. 1040ez tax file   A double-entry bookkeeping system uses journals and ledgers. 1040ez tax file Transactions are first entered in a journal and then posted to ledger accounts. 1040ez tax file These accounts show income, expenses, assets (property a business owns), liabilities (debts of a business), and net worth (excess of assets over liabilities). 1040ez tax file You close income and expense accounts at the end of each tax year. 1040ez tax file You keep asset, liability, and net worth accounts open on a permanent basis. 1040ez tax file   In the double-entry system, each account has a left side for debits and a right side for credits. 1040ez tax file It is self-balancing because you record every transaction as a debit entry in one account and as a credit entry in another. 1040ez tax file   Under this system, the total debits must equal the total credits after you post the journal entries to the ledger accounts. 1040ez tax file If the amounts do not balance, you have made an error and you must find and correct it. 1040ez tax file   An example of a journal entry exhibiting a payment of rent in October is shown next. 1040ez tax file General Journal Date Description of Entry Debit  Credit Oct. 1040ez tax file 5 Rent expense 780. 1040ez tax file 00     Cash   780. 1040ez tax file 00                 Computerized System There are computer software packages you can use for recordkeeping. 1040ez tax file They can be purchased in many retail stores. 1040ez tax file These packages are very helpful and relatively easy to use; they require very little knowledge of bookkeeping and accounting. 1040ez tax file If you use a computerized system, you must be able to produce sufficient legible records to support and verify entries made on your return and determine your correct tax liability. 1040ez tax file To meet this qualification, the machine-sensible records must reconcile with your books and return. 1040ez tax file These records must provide enough detail to identify the underlying source documents. 1040ez tax file You must also keep all machine-sensible records and a complete description of the computerized portion of your recordkeeping system. 1040ez tax file This documentation must be sufficiently detailed to show all of the following items. 1040ez tax file Functions being performed as the data flows through the system. 1040ez tax file Controls used to ensure accurate and reliable processing. 1040ez tax file Controls used to prevent the unauthorized addition, alteration, or deletion of retained records. 1040ez tax file Charts of accounts and detailed account descriptions. 1040ez tax file See Revenue Procedure 98-25 in Cumulative Bulletin 1998-1 for more information. 1040ez tax file How Long To Keep Records You must keep your records as long as they may be needed for the administration of any provision of the Internal Revenue Code. 1040ez tax file Generally, this means you must keep records that support an item of income or deduction on a return until the period of limitations for that return runs out. 1040ez tax file The period of limitations is the period of time in which you can amend your return to claim a credit or refund, or the IRS can assess additional tax. 1040ez tax file Table 3 contains the periods of limitations that apply to income tax returns. 1040ez tax file Unless otherwise stated, the years refer to the period after the return was filed. 1040ez tax file Returns filed before the due date are treated as filed on the due date. 1040ez tax file Keep copies of your filed tax returns. 1040ez tax file They help in preparing future tax returns and making computations if you file an amended return. 1040ez tax file Employment taxes. 1040ez tax file   If you have employees, you must keep all employment tax records for at least 4 years after the date the tax becomes due or is paid, whichever is later. 1040ez tax file For more information about recordkeeping for employment taxes, see Publication 15. 1040ez tax file Assets. 1040ez tax file   Keep records relating to property until the period of limitations expires for the year in which you dispose of the property in a taxable disposition. 1040ez tax file You must keep these records to figure any depreciation, amortization, or depletion deduction, and to figure your basis for computing gain or loss when you sell or otherwise dispose of the property. 1040ez tax file   Generally, if you received property in a nontaxable exchange, your basis in that property is the same as the basis of the property you gave up, increased by any money you paid. 1040ez tax file You must keep the records on the old property, as well as on the new property, until the period of limitations expires for the year in which you dispose of the new property in a taxable disposition. 1040ez tax file Records for nontax purposes. 1040ez tax file   When your records are no longer needed for tax purposes, do not discard them until you check to see if you have to keep them longer for other purposes. 1040ez tax file For example, your insurance company or creditors may require you to keep them longer than the IRS does. 1040ez tax file Sample Record System This example illustrates a single-entry system used by Henry Brown, who is the sole proprietor of a small automobile body shop. 1040ez tax file Henry uses part-time help, has no inventory of items held for sale, and uses the cash method of accounting. 1040ez tax file These sample records should not be viewed as a recommendation of how to keep your records. 1040ez tax file They are intended only to show how one business keeps its records. 1040ez tax file 1. 1040ez tax file Daily Summary of Cash Receipts This summary is a record of cash sales for the day. 1040ez tax file It accounts for cash at the end of the day over the amount in the Change and Petty Cash Fund at the beginning of the day. 1040ez tax file Henry takes the cash sales entry from his cash register tape. 1040ez tax file If he had no cash register, he would simply total his cash sale slips and any other cash received that day. 1040ez tax file He carries the total receipts shown in this summary for January 3 ($267. 1040ez tax file 80), including cash sales ($263. 1040ez tax file 60) and sales tax ($4. 1040ez tax file 20), to the Monthly Summary of Cash Receipts. 1040ez tax file Petty cash fund. 1040ez tax file   Henry uses a petty cash fund to make small payments without having to write checks for small amounts. 1040ez tax file Each time he makes a payment from this fund, he makes out a petty cash slip and attaches it to his receipt as proof of payment. 1040ez tax file He sets up a fixed amount ($50) in his petty cash fund. 1040ez tax file The total of the unspent petty cash and the amounts on the petty cash slips should equal the fixed amount of the fund. 1040ez tax file When the totals on the petty cash slips approach the fixed amount, he brings the cash in the fund back to the fixed amount by writing a check to “Petty Cash” for the total of the outstanding slips. 1040ez tax file (See the Check Disbursements Journal entry for check number 92. 1040ez tax file ) This restores the fund to its fixed amount of $50. 1040ez tax file He then summarizes the slips and enters them in the proper columns in the monthly check disbursements journal. 1040ez tax file 2. 1040ez tax file Monthly Summary of Cash Receipts This shows the income activity for the month. 1040ez tax file Henry carries the total monthly net sales shown in this summary for January ($4,865. 1040ez tax file 05) to his Annual Summary. 1040ez tax file To figure total monthly net sales, Henry reduces the total monthly receipts by the sales tax imposed on his customers and turned over to the state. 1040ez tax file He cannot take a deduction for sales tax turned over to the state because he only collected the tax. 1040ez tax file He does not include the tax in his income. 1040ez tax file 3. 1040ez tax file Check Disbursements Journal Henry enters checks drawn on the business checking account in the Check Disbursements Journal each day. 1040ez tax file All checks are prenumbered and each check number is listed and accounted for in the column provided in the journal. 1040ez tax file Frequent expenses have their own headings across the sheet. 1040ez tax file He enters in a separate column expenses that require comparatively numerous or large payments each month, such as materials, gross payroll, and rent. 1040ez tax file Under the General Accounts column, he enters small expenses that normally have only one or two monthly payments, such as licenses and postage. 1040ez tax file Henry does not pay personal or nonbusiness expenses by checks drawn on the business account. 1040ez tax file If he did, he would record them in the journal, even though he could not deduct them as business expenses. 1040ez tax file Henry carries the January total of expenses for materials ($1,083. 1040ez tax file 50) to the Annual Summary. 1040ez tax file Similarly, he enters the monthly total of expenses for telephone, truck/auto, etc. 1040ez tax file , in the appropriate columns of that summary. 1040ez tax file 4. 1040ez tax file Employee Compensation Record This record shows the following information. 1040ez tax file The number of hours Henry's employee worked in a pay period. 1040ez tax file The employee's total pay for the period. 1040ez tax file The deductions Henry withheld in figuring the employee's net pay. 1040ez tax file The monthly gross payroll. 1040ez tax file Henry carries the January gross payroll ($520) to the Annual Summary. 1040ez tax file 5. 1040ez tax file Annual Summary This annual summary of monthly cash receipts and expense totals provides the final amounts to enter on Henry's tax return. 1040ez tax file He figures the cash receipts total from the total of monthly cash receipts shown in the Monthly Summary of Cash Receipts. 1040ez tax file He figures the expense totals from the totals of monthly expense items shown in the Check Disbursements Journal. 1040ez tax file As in the journal, he keeps each major expense in a separate column. 1040ez tax file Henry carries the cash receipts total shown in the annual summary ($47,440. 1040ez tax file 9
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The 1040ez Tax File

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